Schistosomiasis is a tropical disease with socioeconomic problems. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of myco-synthesized nano-selenium (SeNPs) as a molluscicide on Biomphlaria alexandrina snails, with the goal of reducing disease spread via non-toxic routes. In this study, Penicillium chrysogenum culture filtrate metabolites were used as a reductant for selenium ions to form nano-selenium. The SeNPs were characterized via UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Myco-synthesized SeNPs had a significant molluscicidal effect on B. alexandrina snails after 96 h of exposure at a concentration of 5.96 mg/L. SeNPs also had miracidicidal and cercaricidal properties against S. mansoni. Some alterations were observed in the hemocytes of snails exposed to SeNPs, including the formation of pseudopodia and an increasing number of granules. Furthermore, lipid peroxide, nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione s-transferase (GST) increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner, while superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased. The comet assay revealed that myco-synthesized SeNPs could cause breaks in the DNA levels. In silico study revealed that SeNPs had promising antioxidant properties. In conclusion, myco-synthesized SeNPs have the potential to be used as molluscicides and larvicides.
ALL is the most common form of childhood cancer. Sufferers are treated with chemotherapy, which is associated with the production of free radicals. The aim of this study was to investigate the oxidative stress markers and some antioxidants status among Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia patients. This study included 40 children newly diagnosed ALL before chemotherapy (mean age, 8.2 ±2) compared to 20 healthy controls (mean age, 7.6 ±1.4). The same of 40 patients of ALL undergoing chemotherapy treatment for 3 months. Oxidative stress, blood antioxidants status, kidney and liver profiles were measured in all groups. Our results showed that Antioxidants levels and Hb were significant decreased in ALL patients (P < 0.05) compared to control group, then antioxidants levels were more significant decreasing after ALL patients undergoing chemotherapy. In contrast MDA, 8dG, leukocytes count and Lymphoblast were significant increased (P < 0.05) compared to control group. Also, Urea and creatinine levels were found no significant difference between different groups, there was mild increase after chemotherapy but not significant. On other hand, ALT and AST were found no significant difference between healthy control and ALL patients. But their levels were found statistically significant to be increased in ALL patients after chemotherapy compared to before chemotherapy. In. conclusion, there are possible link between decreased antioxidants and increased levels of cells alterations due to oxidative damage in ALL, and this appear to be associated with complications of treatment.
Schistosomiasis is one of the neglected tropical diseases. It is a snail-borne trematode infection, and Biomphalaria alexandrina snails are the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Egypt. The objective of this study is to evaluate the molluscicidal activity of the aqueous seed extract of Moringa oleifera against B. alexandrina snails. The results showed that this aqueous extract was lethal for B. alexandrina snails (LC 0.27 g/l; LC 0.41 g/l). Exposure of snails to the sublethal concentrations of this aqueous extract caused a considerable reduction in survival rates and hatchability rates of eggs of these snails. Moreover, it negatively affected some biochemical aspects, where it increased the levels of transaminases (ALT and AST), while it decreased the concentrations of total protein, albumin, and globulin concentration. Histological examinations of the digestive gland of snails exposed to the sublethal concentrations of aqueous seed extract of M. oleifera revealed severe damage in the digestive cells, where they lost their tips and some were degenerated, while the secretory cells increased in number. Regarding the hermaphrodite gland, there were losses of connective tissues and irregular sperms, and the eggs were degenerated. These findings prove the potent activity of aqueous seed extract of M. oleifera against the intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni and provide a considerable scope in exploiting local indigenous resources for snails' molluscicidal agents.
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