RESUMO: Estudos prévios têm demonstrado alterações radiográficas em cascos de equinos obesos. Os objetivos foram estudar, com avaliação radiográfica, a relação espacial entre estojo córneo e falange distal de éguas jovens da raça Campolina com e sem obesidade. Foram utilizadas 22 éguas entre três e cinco anos de idade, sendo analisadas varáveis de adiposidade e medidas radiográficas dos cascos dos membros torácicos de éguas com escore corporal de 5 a 7/9 (Grupo Controle) e de 8 a 9 (Grupo Obeso). Foram feitas comparações entre os grupos e correlacionaram-se as variáveis de adiposidade entre si, variáveis adiposidade com variáveis casco e variáveis de casco entre si. Utilizou-se o teste t de Student para variáveis paramétricas e o teste Mann-Whitney para as não-paramétricas, para as medidas de correlação, utilizou o teste de Pearson para duas amostras paramétricas e o teste de Spearman para comparações que envolvam pelo menos uma variável não paramétrica (P<0,05). Os resultados demonstraram que éguas Campolinas obesas, ainda jovens, já apresentam indícios de alteração na relação espacial entre estojo córneo e falange distal.
IntroductionMesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are defined as a population of multipotent cells able to differentiate and produce any cell type needed in a repair process, such as osteoblasts, chondroblasts, neurons, epithelial cells, and cardiac cells (1,2).This cell type has become the focus of numerous studies worldwide for providing clinically promising perspectives for cell therapy and also for its immunomodulatory potential (3,4), although the mechanisms of immunosuppression on inflammatory response and the mechanisms of transplant rejection are not fully elucidated (5).Recent studies have described the use of allogeneic and autologous MSCs for the repair of various tissues (4,6). However, there is little research involving xenotransplantation in animals and most of them only evaluated the cellular interaction in vitro between MSCs and T lymphocytes.Because of the great therapeutic potential of MSCs, in addition to the persistent doubts about their immunosuppressive capacity in vivo, further studies are needed to investigate the real potential of xenogenic transplantation using these cells for tissue repair in animals. Therefore, this study evaluated clinical and radiographic aspects of xenogenic transplantation of rat bone marrow-derived MSCs for the repair of radial bone defects created in rabbits. Materials and methodsThis study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care Committee (protocol 97/2010). Cellular cultureA total of five male, 4-week old Wistar rats were euthanized using anesthetic overdose. The animals were immersed in alcohol 70° to ensure antisepsis for cell collection and were taken to the laminar flow cabinet. The femurs were disarticulated and removed aseptically. The distal epiphyses were cut and the medullary canal was flushed with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM, Gibco, Grand Island, NY, USA) with low glucose, containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) (Gibco), 50.0 mg L -1 gentamicin,
The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) infusion, derived from adipose tissue, on reduction of local and remote tissue damage caused by the event of experimental intestinal I/R in New Zealand breed rabbits. For obtaining, characterization, and cultivation of MSC derived from adipose tissue (MSC-Adp), 3 juvenile animals (four months old) were used. The cells were considered to be viable for therapy after the fourth passage (in vitro phase). For the in vivo stage, 24 young adult animals (six months old) were used, weighing approximately 3.5 kg, in which were randomly divided into two groups, called: IR treated with MSC (I2H/R5H MSC 3D; I2H/R5H MSC 7D); IR treated with PBS (I2H/R5H PBS 3D; I2H/R5H PBS 7D). The animals were anesthetized and submitted to pre-retro-umbilical midline celiotomy. The extramural peri-intestinal marginal artery was located and clamped (predetermined and standardized region) with the aid of a vascular clip, promoting a 2 hour blood flow interruption. After this period, blood flow was reestablished, inhalatory anesthesia was suspended, and the animals awaken. After 5 hours of reperfusion, the treatments were performed by intravenous infusion according to the experimental groups. The animals were evaluated 72 hours and seven days after the treatment as for the macroscopic appearance (color and peristaltism) of the jejunal segment, and by histological evaluation of the ischemic segment for the presence or absence of destruction of the intestinal mucosa, edema, bleeding, dilation of lymph vessels, and presence of polymorphonuclear inflammatory cells, both in the mucosa and submucosa. The observed results revealed that the groups treated with MSC-Adp obtained smaller mucosal and submucosal lesions when compared to the groups treated with PBS. Also, MSC-Adp treated groups obtained controlled inflammatory response and higher mitotic rate, outcomes related to the therapeutic potential of MSC. Infusion of stem cells attenuated the lesions caused by intestinal I/R in both MSC groups when compared to the group treated with PBS.
The present study aimed to establish a methodology capable to cause intestinal ischemia and reperfusion injuries, to perform clamping of the jejunal segment of the extramural peri-intestinal marginal artery branch. For this, 37, 10-week-old male New Zealand breed rabbits were used. One rabbit was used to establish the anatomic references for the procedure and was not part of the six experimental groups; the rest were allocated into six experimental groups: Sham group, negative control, subjected only to midline celiotomy; group I1H undergoing vascular occlusion for an hour; group I2H submitted to vascular occlusion for two hours; group I1H/R2H undergoing vascular occlusion for one hour followed by two hours of reperfusion; group I2H/R1H undergoing vascular occlusion for two hours, followed by reperfusion for one hour, and group I2H/R5H undergoing vascular occlusion for two hours followed by reperfusion for five hours. The rabbits were evaluated for the macroscopic aspects (color and peristalsis) of the jejunal segment, as well as the histological aspect, checking for presence or absence of mucosal destruction, edema, hemorrhaging, lymphatic vessel dilatation, and the presence of polymorphonuclear cells. It was observed that the macroscopic and histopathological lesions accentuated in larger employed ischemia and reperfusion times. Rabbits subjected to ischemia for two hours followed by reperfusion for five hours (I2H/R5H) made up the experimental group which was easily reproducible and showed moderate intestinal injury, different from the other groups.
Relação espacial entre o estojo córneo e a falange distal em éguas Campolina adultas com e sem obesidade[Spatial relationship between the hoof capsule and the distal phalanx in adult Campolina mares with and without obesity] RESUMOA laminite endocrinopática tem acometido um número crescente de equinos com sinais de obesidade. Em um estudo recente com fêmeas jovens (até cinco anos) da raça Campolina, demonstraram-se indícios de alterações no dígito, ainda discretas, aparentemente associadas ao aumento da adiposidade. Com a hipótese de que essa associação é mais evidente em animais em faixa etária superior, o objetivo do presente estudo foi estudar éguas adultas (acima de cinco anos) da raça Campolina com e sem obesidade, avaliando-se radiograficamente a relação espacial entre estojo córneo e falange distal. Foram utilizadas 27 éguas entre seis e 14 anos de idade, sendo analisadas variáveis de adiposidade e medidas radiográficas dos cascos dos membros torácicos de equinos com escore corporal de 5 a 7/9 (grupo controle) e de 8 a 9 (grupo obeso). Foram feitas comparações entre os grupos e correlacionaram-se as variáveis de adiposidade com variáveis casco. A distância de afundamento da falange distal foi cerca de 20% superior nas éguas obesas (12,3±2,5 contra 10,2±2,2mm no grupo controle). Esse parâmetro também correlacionou (P<0,01) com vários parâmetros de adiposidade, com destaque para o escore de condição corporal (r=0,47) e a circunferência de pescoço a 75% (r=0,42). Os resultados corroboram estudos prévios que demonstraram associação entre obesidade e indícios de separação entre falange distal e estojo córneo em equinos de raças nacionais, comprovando, assim, a utilidade da avaliação radiográfica nesses animais. Em conclusão, éguas da raça Campolina com obesidade possuem alterações evidentes na relação espacial entre estojo córneo e falange distal, que se intensificam com o aumento da idade e da adiposidade.Palavras-chave: equino, afundamento, laminite ABSTRACTIn a recent study with young females (up to 5 years old) of the Campolina breed, there were discrete indications of alterations in the digit, apparently associated to the increase in adiposity. With the hypothesis that this association is more evident in horses in the upper age group, the objective was to study Campolina adult mares (above 5 years) with and without obesity, evaluating radiographically the spatial relationship between the horn and distal phalanx. Eighteen mares between six and fourteen years and with a body score of 5 to 7/9 (Control Group) and 8 to 9 (Obeso Group) were used. Adiposity and radiographic measurements from the forelimbs were analyzed. Comparisons were made between groups and adiposity variables were correlated with hoof variables. The sinking distance of the distal phalanx was about 20% higher in obese mares (12.3±2.5 versus 10.2±2.2mm). This parameter also correlated (P< 0.01) with several adiposity parameters, with emphasis on body score condition (r= 0.47) and neck circumference at 75% (r= 0.42). In conclusion, Campolina ma...
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