This study examines the levels of gene flow, the distance and the patterns of pollen and seed dispersal, the intra-population spatial genetic structure (SGS) and the effective population size of a spatially isolated Myracrodruon urundeuva population using five microsatellite loci. The study was carried out in the Paulo de Faria Ecological Station, São Paulo State, Brazil and included the sampling and mapping of 467 adult-trees and 149 juveniles. Open-pollinated seeds (514) from 29 seed-trees were also sampled and genotyped. Significant SGS was detected in both adult (S p = 0.0269) and juveniles trees (S p = 0.0246), indicating short-distance seed dispersal. Using maternity analysis, all juveniles had the mother-tree assigned within the stand. A father-tree within the stand was also assigned for 97.3% of the juveniles and 98.4% of offspring. The average pollen dispersal distance measured in juvenilesd ¼ 138 AE 169 m; mean AE SD and offspringd ¼ 252 AE 204 m were higher than the average seed dispersal distance measured in juvenileŝ d ¼ 124 AE 150 m . About 70% of the pollen from juveniles and 51% from offspring traveled less than 200 m and, 72% of the seeds traveled less than 50 m. The effective population size of the studied sample indicates that the 467 adult-trees and 145 juveniles correspond respectively to 335 and 63 individuals that are neither inbred nor relatives.The results are discussed in relation to their impact on seed collection practices and genetic conservation.
The objectives of this study were to physicochemically characterize and determine the antioxidant activities and anthocyanin contents of organic Rabbiteye blueberries grown in Southern Brazil and its derived products, in order to investigate the utility of food processing wastes as raw materials for developing products with beneficial health properties. The antioxidant capacity of the blueberries was superior to that of other fruits and juices. The pomace exhibited high activity, albeit lower than that of the fruit, while the flour and the dried blueberries lost 66% and 46% of the original antioxidant activity, respectively. The average anthocyanin contents of the fruits were moderate compared to other sources and species of blueberries. The pomace contains a large amount of anthocyanins while the flour and dried blueberries exhibited a 32% and 42% loss in anthocyanin content, respectively. The use of agro-industrial residues, in addition to adding value and minimizing the impact caused by the accumulation in the environment, can be directed toward the development of new products with bioactive properties.Keywords: blueberry; processing; physicochemical characterization; antioxidant capacity; anthocyanins; HPLC.Practical Application: Knowing that the blueberry is a fruit with high antioxidant capacity and great productive potential in southern Brazil, the characterization and determination of bioactive substances of blueberry fruits and its derived products showed that the utilization of agro-industrial wastes as raw materials can be an interesting alternative for developing new products with health promoting properties and technological applications, such as antioxidants and food dyes, besides minimizing the impact caused by their accumulation in the environment.
The aim of this study was to verify the effectiveness of an active biodegradable film on the maintenance of extra‐virgin olive oil (EVOO) quality attributes. Level of peroxides, acidity, K232, color, chlorophylls, and carotenoids were determined as parameters to verify the oil quality over storage period. Maltodextrin was used to encapsulate anthocyanins and was the major component in the films, which were used as pouches to pack the oil. The samples were stored at 40°C, exposed to fluorescent light, and monitored during 12 days. The film successfully maintained the quality of EVOO under the limits established by Codex Alimentarius for over 8 days (13.6 meq O2/kg of peroxides at the 8th day), while the oil packed in polypropylene pouches was degraded before the 4th day of storage (326.5 meq O2/kg). Therefore, the results demonstrated the effectiveness of the film on maintaining the quality of EVOO and its promising application as active packaging.
Extra‐virgin olive oil (EVOO) is an oxidation‐sensitive product and has been shown to quickly deteriorate when stored under less than ideal conditions. The study brings a new packaging possibility to the commercialization of EVOO with longer shelf‐life. The storage of extra‐virgin olive oil in biodegradable pouches produced with anthocyanins could preserve EVOO from oxidation and consequently extent its shelf‐life. The study proves the efficacy of an active biodegradable packaging on maintaining quality attributes of EVOO. The commercialization of EVOO in active biodegradable pouches could be an eco‐friendly and sustainable way to bring health and practicality to consumers.
It is well established that the performance of lipase B from Candida antarctica (CALB) as catalyst for esterification reactions may be improved by the use of ultrasound technology or by its immobilization on styrene-divinylbenzene beads (MCI-CALB). The present research evaluated the synthesis of butyl acetate using MCI-CALB under ultrasonic energy, comparing the results against those obtained using the commercial preparation, Novozym 435. The optimal conditions were determined using response surface methodology (RSM) evaluating the following parameters: reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio, amount of biocatalyst, and added water. The optimal conditions for butyl acetate synthesis catalyzed by MCI-CALB were: temperature, 48.8 °C; substrate molar ratio, 3.46:1 alcohol:acid; amount of biocatalyst, 7.5%; and added water 0.28%, both as
OPEN ACCESSMolecules 2014, 19 9563 substrate mass. Under these conditions, 90% of conversion was reached in 1.5 h. In terms of operational stability, MCI-CALB was reused in seven cycles while keeping 70% of its initial activity under ultrasonic energy. The support pore size and resistance are key points for the enzyme activity and stability under mechanical stirring. The use of ultrasound improved both activity and stability because of better homogeneity and reduced mechanical stress to the immobilized system.
Gene flow studies provide information on gene exchange between populations, which is essential for developing genetic conservation strategies. Such analyses enable a better understanding of the life history and seed and pollen dispersal mechanisms of plant species. In this study, we investigate pollen and seed flow in a regenerant population of the pioneer species Astronium fraxinifolium in an area degraded during the construction of a hydroelectric dam. We mapped, sampled, sexed, and genotyped 386 individuals in the regenerant population (RP), as well as 128 adult trees located along two highways adjacent to the degraded area; one in Mato Grosso do Sul State (MS) and other in São Paulo State (SP). Parentage analyses was carried out for 370 individuals of the RP population, using as putative parents 348 individuals from RP and all 128 individuals sampled in MS and SP. Based on parentage analysis and eight microsatellite loci, our analyses revealed that for individuals of the RP with an identified father (pollen donor), 1.1% of the pollen was dispersed up to 532 m, while for those with an identified mother (seed donor), 0.5% of seeds were dispersed up to 4,782 m. However, a large proportion of pollen (76.5%) and seeds (57%) immigrated from trees outside the sampled populations. Pollen and seeds were dispersed through a pattern of isolation by distance. Genetic diversity was significantly similar between adults of both highway populations and individuals from RP, with significant levels of inbreeding detected only in RP. Our results demonstrate that the nearest trees contributed pollen and seeds for the recovery of the degraded area, indicating reproductive spatial isolation among the sampled populations due to the damming of the river. Such results help to understand the process of regeneration for A. fraxinifolium in regenerant populations to inform strategies for conservation and environmental recovery with this species.
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