The reported prevalence figures on shoulder complaints diverged strongly. Health professionals and policymakers who estimate the amount of medical care needed and related costs should be aware of the variations in prevalence rate and the underlying reasons for these differences.
This paper systematically reviews the scientific literature on the effects of individual and work-related factors on the Work Ability Index (WAI). Studies on work ability published from 1985 to 2006 were identified through a structured search in PubMed, and Web of Science. Studies were included if the WAI was used as measure of work ability and if quantitative information was presented on determinants of work ability. In total, 20 studies were included with 14 cross-sectional studies and six longitudinal studies. Factors associated with poor work ability, as defined by WAI, were lack of leisure-time vigorous physical activity, poor musculoskeletal capacity, older age, obesity, high mental work demands, lack of autonomy, poor physical work environment, and high physical work load. The WAI is associated with individual characteristics, lifestyle, demands at work, and physical condition. This multifactorial nature of work ability should be taken into account in health promotion programmes aimed at maintaining and promoting the participation of the labour force and improvement of the performance at work.
Background: The workplace has been identified as a promising setting for health promotion, and many worksite health promotion programmes have been implemented in the past years. Research has mainly focused on the effectiveness of these interventions. For implementation of interventions at a large scale however, information about (determinants of) participation in these programmes is essential. This systematic review investigates initial participation in worksite health promotion programmes, the underlying determinants of participation, and programme characteristics influencing participation levels.
BackgroundThis study systematically reviewed the evidence pertaining to socioeconomic inequalities in different domains of physical activity (PA) by European region.MethodsStudies conducted between January 2000 and December 2010 were identified by a systematic search in Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Psychinfo, Sportdiscus, Sociological Abstracts, and Social Service Abstracts. English-language peer-reviewed studies undertaken in the general population of adults (18–65 years) were classified by domain of PA (total, leisure-time including sport, occupational, active transport), indicator of socioeconomic position (education, income, occupation), and European region. Distributions of reported positive, negative, and null associations were evaluated.ResultsA total of 131 studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies were conducted in Scandinavia (n = 47). Leisure-time PA was the most frequently studied PA outcome (n = 112). Considerable differences in the direction of inequalities were seen for the different domains of PA. Most studies reported that those with high socioeconomic position were more physically active during leisure-time compared to those with low socioeconomic position (68% positive associations for total leisure-time PA, 76% for vigorous leisure-time PA). Occupational PA was more prevalent among the lower socioeconomic groups (63% negative associations). Socioeconomic differences in total PA and active transport PA did not show a consistent pattern (40% and 38% positive associations respectively). Some inequalities differed by European region or socioeconomic indicator, however these differences were not very pronounced.ConclusionsThe direction of socioeconomic inequalities in PA in Europe differed considerably by domain of PA. The contradictory results for total PA may partly be explained by contrasting socioeconomic patterns for leisure-time PA and occupational PA.
The scientific literature on work-related back disorders was reviewed to identify consistent rislc factors and to determine the strength of the association between the two. Thirty-five publications were selected with quantitative information. Lifting or carrying loads, whole-body vibration, and frequent bending and twisting proved to be the physical load risk factors consistently associated with work-related baclc disorders. Job dissatisfaction and low job decision latitude proved to be important, but the evidence was not consistent across different studies and study designs. The epidemiologic studies illustrated the importance of several confounders, especially age, smoking habits, and education. In this review, gender, height, weight, exercise, and marital status were consistently not associated with back disorders in occupational populations.
Work and health play an entirely different role in the life course than before, necessitating new models. A definition and model of sustainable employability is presented based on Amartya Sen's capability approach, challenging researchers, policy-makers and practitioners to look for what is important and valuable in a given (work) context and whether people are able and enabled to realize this. Affiliation 71Discussion paper Scand J Work Environ Health 2016;42(1):71-79. doi:10.5271/sjweh.3531 Sustainable employability -definition, conceptualization, and implications: A perspective based on the capability approach By Jac JL van der Klink, PhD,1, 2 Ute Bültmann, PhD, 2 Alex Burdorf, PhD,3 Wilmar B Schaufeli, PhD,4,5 Fred RH Zijlstra, PhD,6 Femke I Abma, PhD, 2 Sandra Brouwer, PhD, 2 Gert Jan van der Wilt, PhD 7 Van der Klink JJL, Bültmann U, Burdorf A, Schaufeli WB, Zijlstra FRH, Abma FI, Brouwer S, Van der Wilt GJ. Sustainable employability -definition, conceptualization, and implications: A perspective based on the capability approach. Scand J Work Environ Health 2016;42(1):71-79. doi:10.5271/sjweh.3531Objectives The aim of this paper is to propose a new model of sustainable employability based on the capability approach, encompassing the complexity of contemporary work, and placing particular emphasis on work-related values.Methods Having evaluated existing conceptual models of work, health, and employability, we concluded that prevailing models lack an emphasis on important work-related values. Amartya Sen's capability approach (CA) provides a framework that incorporates a focus on values and reflects the complexity of sustainable employability.Results We developed a model of sustainable employability based on the CA. This model can be used as starting point for developing an assessment tool to investigate sustainable employability.Conclusions A fundamental premise of the CA is that work should create value for the organization as well as the worker. This approach challenges researchers, policy-makers, and practitioners to investigate what people find important and valuable -what they would like to achieve in a given (work) context -and moreover to ascertain whether people are able and enabled to do so. According to this approach, it is not only the individual who is responsible for achieving this; the work context is also important. Rather than merely describing relationships between variables, as existing descriptive models often do, the CA depicts a valuable goal: a set of capabilities that constitute valuable work. Moreover, the CA fits well with recent conceptions of health and modern insights into work, in which the individual works towards his or her own goals that s/he has to achieve within the broader goals of the organization. Correspondence to JJL van der Klink, Tilburg University, Tilburg School of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Tranzo, Scientific Center for Care and Welfare, PO Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg. The Netherlands. [E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org] In his recent book, The Strength...
Little is known on environmental risk factors for cryptorchidism and hypospadias, which are among the most frequent congenital abnormalities. The aim of our study was to identify risk factors for cryptorchidism and hypospadias, with a focus on potential endocrine disruptors in parental diet and occupation. In a case–control study nested within a cohort of 8,698 male births, we compared 78 cryptorchidism cases and 56 hypospadias cases with 313 controls. The participation rate was 85% for cases and 68% for controls. Through interviews, information was collected on pregnancy aspects and personal characteristics, lifestyle, occupation, and dietary phytoestrogen intake of both parents. Occupational exposure to potential endocrine disruptors was classified based on self-reported exposure and ratings of occupational hygienists based on job descriptions. Our findings indicate that paternal pesticide exposure was associated with cryptorchidism [odds ratio (OR) = 3.8; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.1–13.4]. Smoking of the father was associated with hypospadias (OR = 3.8; 95% CI, 1.8–8.2). Maternal occupational, dietary, and lifestyle exposures were not associated with either abnormality. Both abnormalities were associated with suboptimal maternal health, a lower maternal education, and a Turkish origin of the parents. Being small for gestational age was a risk factor for hypospadias, and preterm birth was a risk factor for cryptorchidism. Because paternal pesticide exposure was significantly associated with cryptorchidism and paternal smoking was associated with hypospadias in male offspring, paternal exposure should be included in further studies on cryptorchidism and hypospadias risk factors.
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