IntroductionAn ongoing issue of expired medications accumulating in some households is a universal problem around the world. The aim of the study was to investigate the extent and structure of expired medications in Serbian households, and to determine which therapeutic groups generated the most waste.MethodsThis was an observational, cross-sectional study conducted in households in the city of Novi Sad, Serbia. The study had been performed over 8 month period (December 2011 - July 2012) and it consisted of personal insights into the medication inventory in households.ResultsOf 1008 families, 383 agreed to participate and complete the questionnaire (38.3% response rate). In almost a half of households (44.4%), expired medications were maintained. The amount of expired medications was 402 items, corresponding to 9.2% of total medications presented in surveyed households. The majority of expired medications (64.7%) was in solid dosage (tablets, capsules, granules, lozenges), following semisolid (ointments, creams, gel, suppositories) and liquid dosage forms (drops, syrups). Expired medications in the households belonged mostly to 3 categories: antimicrobials for systemic use (16.7%), dermatological preparation (15.9%) and medications for alimentary tract and metabolism (14.2%).ConclusionsThis study revealed that there were relatively large quantities of expired medications in Serbian households, with a high prevalence of antibiotics for systemic use, anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products, and medications for alimentary tract and metabolism.
This work investigates the influence of a high-magnitude flood event on heavy elements (HEs) pollution and mobility in the agricultural soils along Ibar River in Southern Serbia and Northern Kosovo. The study area was one of the most important Pb/Zn industrial regions in Europe. Soil samples (n = 50) collected before and after the floods in May 2014 were subjected to the sequential extraction procedure proposed by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR). The results indicated that the floods significantly increased not only the pseudo total concentrations of HEs in the soil but also their mobile and potentially bioavailable amounts. Moreover, higher concentrations (both pseudo total and potentially bioavailable) were found in the agricultural soils closer to the industrial hotspots. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis successfully grouped the analyzed elements according to their anthropogenic or natural origin. The floods significantly increased the potential ecological risk of HEs associated with Pb/Zn industrial activities in the study area. The potential ecological risk of Cd after the floods was highest and should be of special concern.
[Purpose] The extent of functional independence ultimately achieved by an individual
patient will be influenced by a variety of medical and non-medical factors. [Subjects and
Methods] this study included 419 patients with spinal cord lesions treated in the Clinic
for Rehabilitation “Dr M. Zotovic”, Belgrade, Serbia, from January 2000 to December 2009.
The patients were divided in two groups according to achievement of increase in Functional
Independence Measure (FIM) score of more than 13 at discharge compared to admission. A
variety of clinical variables were followed in both groups. [Results] one hundred
twenty-one patients (28.9%) showed improvements in FIM score of ≤13, while 298 (71.1%)
patients showed an increases in FIM score of >13 at discharge compared to admission.
Better functional recovery was observed in patients with non-traumatic spinal cord
lesions, lower neurological levels of the lesion (OR = 6.07), and in patients treated
surgically, but the level of the spinal cord lesion was the most influential factor
affecting outcome. [Conclusion] the patients with spinal cord lesions should not only be
grouped by traumatic and non-traumatic lesions only, but also sub-categorized, according
to the etiology, level of injury and treatment method.
The physicians should take precautions and try to make the early diagnosis and rapid appropriate treatment of urinary tract infections in patients with SCI who also have functional bladder disorder, combined spinal injuries, anemia or urine crystals.
Background:The objective of this study was to examine the knowledge and practices regarding expired medications and to identify their potential predictors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, between August and November of 2014 in Regional Community Primary Health Care centre in Serbia on 609 patients. The research instrument was the questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied. Results: The lack of knowledge about the treatment of expired medications had 67.5% respondents, while 87.3% of the respondents had inappropriate practice. In the model of multivariate logistic regression with lack of knowledge as dependent variable, statistically significant predictors were: unemployment (OR=2.21; 95%CI: 1.35-3.59), lower economic status (OR=1.67; 95% CI: 1.01-2.58), unread instructions for use (OR=3.26; 95% CI: 1.51-7.02), unchecked medications' expiration date (OR=3.30; 95% CI: 1.22-8.92). In the second model of multivariate logistic regression with inappropriate practice as dependant variable, statistically significant predictors were: the lower education level (OR=1.75; 95% CI: 1.09-2.80), unemployment (OR=2.66; 95% CI: 1.17-6.05), families with members incapable of taking care of their medicines independently (OR=0.27; 95% CI: 0.12-0.61) and lack of knowledge (OR=4.09; 95% CI: 2.31-7.23). Conclusion: Our study shows that there is a need for stronger control of the implementation of legally defined procedures for disposal of medications, as well as a proactive education of population about proper disposal of medications.
Background/Aim. Neuroendocrine (NE) cells are one of the epithelial populations in the prostate. It is well-known that the focal neuroendocrine differentiation (FNED) in prostate cancer (PC) is an aggressive subtype that most commonly evolves from preexisting PC which does not respond to hormone therapy (androgen independed PC). The incidence and clinical importance of FNED in PC is not clearly understood because of conflicting results in the studies, and evaluation of FNED is not routinely performed in clinical practice. The aim of the present study is to determine the importance of FNED presence in the examined prostate changes with special reference to the relationship of FNED degree in PC with some parameters of predictive value [Gleason score, preoperative serum total prostata specific antigen (PSA) value, tumor volume and tumor stage]. Methods. The study included the biopsy material from 100 untreated consecutive prostate pathological changes: 70 PC, 20 prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and 10 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The patients with PIN and BPH were the control groups. A block containing part of
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.