The aim of this research paper is to test the antistaphylococcal effect of 1,8-cineole, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC), and gentamicin, either separately or in combination against three Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from patients suffering from osteomyelitis. This activity was tested in vitro by using the microdilution method and the checkerboard assay. The efficacy of these three antibacterial agents was then tested in vivo by using an experimental model of methicillin-resistant S. aureus osteomyelitis in rabbits. This efficacy was assessed after four days of treatment by counting the number of bacteria in the bone marrow. The obtained results in vitro showed that the combination of the AMC with gentamicin did not induce a synergistic effect, whereas the combination of the two antibiotics with 1,8-cineole did. This effect is stronger when AMC is combined with 1,8-cineole as a total synergistic effect was obtained on the three strains used (FIC ≤ 0.5). In vivo, a significant reduction was noted in the number of colonies in the bone marrow when rabbits were treated with AMC associated with either 1,8-cineole or gentamicin compared to rabbits treated with AMC, gentamicin, or 1,8-cineole alone. These results demonstrated that 1,8-cineole showed a synergistic effect in combination with both AMC and gentamicin, which offer possibilities for reducing antibiotic usage. Also, the AMC associated with 1,8-cineole could be used to treat MRSA osteomyelitis.
The purpose of the present study is twofold. First, it aims to evaluate the synergistic action of the ß-lactam antibiotic; AMX is associated with 1,8-cineole on six clinical isolates of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Second, it aims to determine the effect this association has on the ESBL enzymatic resistance mechanism. The synergistic action of AMX/1,8-cineole was evaluated using partial inhibitory concentrations (PIC), determined by a microplate, a checkerboard and time–kill assays. The effect of AMX/1,8-cineole associations on the ESBL enzymatic resistance mechanism was evaluated using a new optimized enzymatic assay. This assay was based on the determination of the AMX antibacterial activity when combined with 1,8-cineole (at subinhibitory concentrations) in the presence or absence of the ß-lactamase enzyme toward a sensitive E. coli strain. The results of both checkerboard and time–kill assays showed a strong synergistic action between AMX and 1,8-cineole. The results of the enzymatic assay showed that the combination of AMX with 1,8-cineole notably influences the enzymatic resistance of the reaction by decreasing the affinity of the β-lactam antibiotic, AMX, to the β-lactamase enzyme. All obtained results suggested that the AMX/1,8-cineole association could be employed in therapy to overcome bacterial resistance to AMX while reducing the prevalence of resistance.
This study aims at verifying,
This study aims at verifying,
In this study, the effectiveness of the combination therapy of 1,8-cineole with amoxicillin (AMX) and clavulanic acid (Clav) was investigated. For this, the pharmacokinetic behaviors of AMX in rabbits were studied after a single oral dose. The animals were divided randomly into two groups: the reference group (received AMX/Clav (50/12.5 mg/kg)) and the test group (received AMX/Clav/1,8-cineole (50/12.5/10 mg/kg)). Blood samples were collected prior to administration and after T1h, T2h, T3h, and T6h post-administration. Plasma concentrations of AMX were quantified using a validated HPLC method. The antibacterial activity of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of treated rabbits was tested against Escherichia coli ESBL-producing a strain by microdilution method. The obtained results showed significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters between the two groups. The resulting AUC0–6h and Cmax mean values of the AMX reference group were 14.74 µg.h/mL and 3.49 µg/mL, respectively. However, those of the AMX test group were 22.30 µg.h/mL and 5.79 µg/mL, respectively. The results showed that the antibacterial activity of the plasma and CSF test group was significantly higher than that of the reference group. The effectiveness of this combination (Olipen: AMX/Clav/1,8-cineole) was demonstrated by increasing the level of the antibiotic and by improving the bioavailability.
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