The aim of this research paper is to test the antistaphylococcal effect of 1,8-cineole, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC), and gentamicin, either separately or in combination against three Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from patients suffering from osteomyelitis. This activity was tested in vitro by using the microdilution method and the checkerboard assay. The efficacy of these three antibacterial agents was then tested in vivo by using an experimental model of methicillin-resistant S. aureus osteomyelitis in rabbits. This efficacy was assessed after four days of treatment by counting the number of bacteria in the bone marrow. The obtained results in vitro showed that the combination of the AMC with gentamicin did not induce a synergistic effect, whereas the combination of the two antibiotics with 1,8-cineole did. This effect is stronger when AMC is combined with 1,8-cineole as a total synergistic effect was obtained on the three strains used (FIC ≤ 0.5). In vivo, a significant reduction was noted in the number of colonies in the bone marrow when rabbits were treated with AMC associated with either 1,8-cineole or gentamicin compared to rabbits treated with AMC, gentamicin, or 1,8-cineole alone. These results demonstrated that 1,8-cineole showed a synergistic effect in combination with both AMC and gentamicin, which offer possibilities for reducing antibiotic usage. Also, the AMC associated with 1,8-cineole could be used to treat MRSA osteomyelitis.
The purpose of the present study is twofold. First, it aims to evaluate the synergistic action of the ß-lactam antibiotic; AMX is associated with 1,8-cineole on six clinical isolates of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Second, it aims to determine the effect this association has on the ESBL enzymatic resistance mechanism. The synergistic action of AMX/1,8-cineole was evaluated using partial inhibitory concentrations (PIC), determined by a microplate, a checkerboard and time–kill assays. The effect of AMX/1,8-cineole associations on the ESBL enzymatic resistance mechanism was evaluated using a new optimized enzymatic assay. This assay was based on the determination of the AMX antibacterial activity when combined with 1,8-cineole (at subinhibitory concentrations) in the presence or absence of the ß-lactamase enzyme toward a sensitive E. coli strain. The results of both checkerboard and time–kill assays showed a strong synergistic action between AMX and 1,8-cineole. The results of the enzymatic assay showed that the combination of AMX with 1,8-cineole notably influences the enzymatic resistance of the reaction by decreasing the affinity of the β-lactam antibiotic, AMX, to the β-lactamase enzyme. All obtained results suggested that the AMX/1,8-cineole association could be employed in therapy to overcome bacterial resistance to AMX while reducing the prevalence of resistance.
Fried foods are hugely popular and very much a part of our modern cuisine. Guarding against oxidation is crucial, due to the absorption of oil during the frying process. This paper presents how, the degree of resistance of sunflower oil was evaluated during repeated fries of chicken wings by adding the natural antioxidant extracted from rosemary. It was compared to tocopherol and to a control sample. A preliminary test of accelerated aging demonstrated the effectiveness of rosemary extract by using the Rapidoxy technique on sunflower oil. This proved that the adequate dose of this antioxidant should be 600 ppm. Many physicochemical transformations were inflicted on the oil during its oxidation. The kinetics monitoring of this phenomenon was determined by measuring the total polar materials (TPM), free fatty acids (FFA), and the peroxide index (PI). The obtained results showed that all the parameters analysed tended to increase over time. However, the effect of the rosemary antioxidant was positive on the stability of the oil and the slowing down of its oxidation. Moreover, its efficiency was higher than tocopherol. Rosemary antioxidants could be a safer alternative to synthetic antioxidants which represent toxicological risks, such as buthylated hydroxyanisole BHA, buthylated hydroxytoluene BHT, and tert-butylhydroquinone TBHQ.
This study aims at verifying, in vitro, the extent to which the use of amoxicillin or thymol induces the selection of resistant bacteria and at evaluating in vivo their effects on the development of antimicrobial resistance in the intestinal flora of poultry. E. coli strain was subcultured on agar plates containing increasing concentrations of either amoxicillin or thymol. Thereafter, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of thymol, amoxicillin, and two other antibiotics, tylosin and colistin, were determined using the microdilution method. Groups of chicks were subjected to a 2-week regime of either amoxicillin or thymol added to their drinking water. During the treatment with either thymol or amoxicillin, the total aerobic mesophilic flora (TAMF) was counted on thymol-gradient plates or amoxicillin-gradient plates and the MICs of antibiotics and thymol for E. coli isolates were determined. The in vitro test showed that for E. coli, which had been serially subcultured on increasing concentrations of amoxicillin, a 32-fold increase in MIC values for amoxicillin and a 4-fold increase for colistin and tylosin were noted. However, the MIC of thymol for this strain remained constant. For the E. coli, which had been serially subcultured on increasing concentrations of thymol, no change in the MIC values for antibiotics and thymol was observed. The in vivo test confirmed the in vitro one. It demonstrated that exposure to amoxicillin induced a selection of antimicrobial resistance in TAMF and intestinal E. coli, whereas exposure to thymol did not. The results showed that the group receiving thymol had a lower consumption index compared to the other groups. This study demonstrates the feasibility of this natural product as an alternative solution to the current use of antibiotics in poultry farming.
In this study, the effectiveness of the combination therapy of 1,8-cineole with amoxicillin (AMX) and clavulanic acid (Clav) was investigated. For this, the pharmacokinetic behaviors of AMX in rabbits were studied after a single oral dose. The animals were divided randomly into two groups: the reference group (received AMX/Clav (50/12.5 mg/kg)) and the test group (received AMX/Clav/1,8-cineole (50/12.5/10 mg/kg)). Blood samples were collected prior to administration and after T1h, T2h, T3h, and T6h post-administration. Plasma concentrations of AMX were quantified using a validated HPLC method. The antibacterial activity of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of treated rabbits was tested against Escherichia coli ESBL-producing a strain by microdilution method. The obtained results showed significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters between the two groups. The resulting AUC0–6h and Cmax mean values of the AMX reference group were 14.74 µg.h/mL and 3.49 µg/mL, respectively. However, those of the AMX test group were 22.30 µg.h/mL and 5.79 µg/mL, respectively. The results showed that the antibacterial activity of the plasma and CSF test group was significantly higher than that of the reference group. The effectiveness of this combination (Olipen: AMX/Clav/1,8-cineole) was demonstrated by increasing the level of the antibiotic and by improving the bioavailability.
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