Residues from the processing of cassava roots (Manihot esculentaCrantz), or cassava peels, are evaluated as chemically modified adsorbents with H2O2, H2SO4, and NaOH, in the removal of metal ions Cd(II), Pb(II), and Cr(III) from contaminated water. Modified adsorbents were chemically characterized for their chemical composition andpHPZC(point of zero charge), while adsorption tests determined the best conditions of pH, adsorbent mass, and contact time between adsorbent and adsorbate in the process of removal of the metal ions. Isotherms obtained from the preliminary results were linearized by Langmuir’s and Freudlich’s models. The thermodynamic parameters, such asΔH,ΔG, andΔS, were also evaluated. The modifying solutions proposed were effective in the modification of adsorbents and resulted in high capacity sorption materials. Equilibrium time between adsorbent and adsorbate for the solutions contaminated with metals is about 40 minutes. The Langmuir model adjusted to most results, indicating monolayers adsorption of Cd(II), Pb(II), and Cr(III). The values obtained for LangmuirQmshow a higher adsorption capacity caused by chemical modifications, with values such as 19.54 mg Cd(II) per g of M. NaOH, 42.46 mg of Pb(II) per g of M. NaOH, and 43.97 mg of Cr(III) per g of M H2O2. Results showed that modified cassava peels are excellent adsorbent, renewable, high availability, and low-cost materials and a feasible alternative in the removal of metals in industries.
Para determinar a dose máxima de cobre que pode ser aplicada às sementes de milho sem provocar danos à emergência, realizou-se um experimento, em condição de casa de vegetação, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, um teste de emergência. As sementes de milho foram tratadas com uma solução de sulfato de cobre nas dosagens de: 0,00; 1,00; 2,00; 4,00 e 6,00g de cobre por kg de sementes. A aplicação de cobre nas sementes de milho prejudicou a emergência das mesmas e a dose de 5,09g de cobre por kg de sementes foi a que mais influenciou negativamente nesta variável. A partir do tratamento com 4,00g de cobre por kg de sementes, sintomas de toxicidade foram observados sem afetar a massa seca das plantas.
Urban cemeteries on a global scale raise concerns due to their potential to concentrate differing levels of hazardous pollutants in their native soils due to the unnatural concentration of burials in a limited space. It is paramount for sustainability that designers of future cemeteries take this into account in order to minimize the deposition and movement of these contaminants within the soil profile. The objective of this manuscript is to identify the levels of certain hazardous element contamination, specifically heavy metals, in the soil of horizontal urban cemeteries that do not utilize herbicides for weed control. In this, solutions were sought for the construction of future urban cemeteries capable of mitigating further contamination of the environment by the increase in interments. The soils of three urban cemeteries (A, B and C) in the Brazilian city of Carazinho, in Rio Grande do Sul State, were sampled with 5 monitoring points in the internal area and 5 points in the external area of the cemeteries. At each point, 3 replications were performed at two depths (0-20 and 20-40 cm), totaling 180 samples in all, to determine the concentration of the following metals: copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), and chromium (Cr) (g kg-1). In addition, online interviews with 15 architects who design cemeteries were conducted. Architectural design solutions to mitigate environmental contamination were modeled utilizing the Building Information Modeling system (BIM). The results showed an excess of Cu in the soil of cemeteries A, B and C, surpassing the standards allowed by Brazilian federal regulations. A total of 80% of the interviewed architects expressed their preference for the vertical cemetery, with gas and effluent treatment systems to mitigate environmental impacts.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the availability of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and chromium (Cr) to soil and maize plants fertilized with different sources and doses of zinc (Zn) in a Rhodic Eutrudox soil. For that purpose, concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Cr were evaluated in leaf tissue and grains of maize plants and in 0-20 and 20-40 cm soil layers after fertilization with four doses of Zn from eight different sources of fertilizer. There was no accumulation of Cd, Pb, and Cr in maize grain and Cd and Cr in leaf tissue of the plants; nevertheless, there was accumulation of Pb in leaf tissue, showing its availability throughout different sources of Zn and consequent uptake by plants. Regarding the soil, it was observed that fertilizer from the different sources made Cd, Pb, and Cr available at increasing amounts proportional to increased Zn doses. Under experimental conditions, fertilization with Zn increased concentrations of heavy metals Cd, Pb and Cr in soil, further highlighting the importance of conducting more studies related to the application of mineral fertilizers for micronutrient supply and the availability of heavy metals.
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