Three new cases of reactivation of Chagas' disease in patients with AIDS, with central nervous system and/or cardiac involvement, are reported. One patient had histological evidence of acute esophageal and gastric Trypanosoma cruzi myositis, a previously unrecognized finding in patients with reactivated Chagas' disease. The patients had a low CD4 lymphocyte count and had other AIDS-defining opportunistic infections. One patient's condition improved with benznidazole therapy. Analysis of these three cases and review of the 13 others published in the literature revealed that the central nervous system is the most commonly involved site (75%), followed by the heart (44%). Early diagnosis and treatment with benznidazole or nifurtimox probably improve the survival rate. Long-term secondary prophylaxis should be recommended for patients who respond to therapy, although it is uncertain which drug to use for this purpose. T. cruzi should be included in the list of opportunistic pathogens causing infection in severely immunocompromised patients with AIDS.
Considering that little is known about the epidemiology of Neospora caninum infection in humans, particularly in populations with high Toxoplasma gondii infection rates, the present study aimed to investigate the presence of antibodies to N. caninum in T. gondii-seropositive and -seronegative individuals. A total of 256 serum samples divided into four groups (61 samples from human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]-positive patients, 50 samples from patients with neurological disorders, 91 samples from newborns, and 54 samples from healthy subjects) were assessed for N. caninum and T. gondii serologies by indirect fluorescent-antibody test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunoblotting (IB). Immunoglobulin G antibodies to N. caninum were predominantly detected in HIV-infected patients (38%) and patients with neurological disorders (18%), while newborns and healthy subjects showed lower seropositivity rates (5% and 6%, respectively). Seropositivity to N. caninum was significantly associated with seropositivity to T. gondii in both HIV-infected patients and patients with neurological disorders. Seroreactivity to N. caninum was confirmed by IB, with positive sera predominantly recognizing the 29-kDa antigen of N. caninum. The results of this study indicate the presence of N. caninum infection or exposure in humans, particularly in HIV-infected patients or patients with neurological disorders, who could have opportunistic and concurrent infections with T. gondii. These findings may bring a new concern for the unstable clinical health of HIV-infected patients and the actual role of N. caninum infection in immunocompromised patients.
RESUMOA histoplasmose é uma micose causada por fungo dimórfico, o Histoplasma capsulatum. É considerada classicamente uma micose endêmica, embora o fungo tenha um comportamento oportunístico em pacientes com depressão da imunidade celular. O homem adquire a infecção através da inalação de conídeos presentes na natureza (cavernas com morcegos, galinheiros, etc). O quadro clínico pode variar, desde infecções assintomáticas até quadros graves disseminados, que acometem pacientes com Aids, transplantados ou com neoplasias hematológicas. O diagnóstico baseia-se no encontro do fungo em fluidos orgânicos (escarro, sangue, líquor) ou tecidos (histopatologia), na cultura de materiais biológicos e na sorologia. O tratamento das formas agudas graves, respiratória crônica ou de formas localizadas pode ser feito com azólicos orais (itraconazol) e nas disseminadas, a Anfotericina B (preferencialmente as formulações lipídicas) constitui a droga da eleição para iniciar a terapia. A histoplasmose representa, hoje uma das micoses sistêmicas mais importantes nas Américas, com ampla distribuição em todas as regiões do Brasil. Palavras-chaves:Histoplasmose. Histoplasma capsulatum. Micose sistêmica. Síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida. ABSTRACTHistoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. It is classically considered an endemic mycosis, even though the fungus has an opportunistic behavior in immunocompromised patients. People acquired the infection through the inhalation of conidial forms present in the environmental, such as caves dwelling bats and soils inhabited by chickens. The clinical features may vary from asymptomatic infections to disseminated severe forms that affect patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or hematological malignancies and allograft recipients. The diagnosis is based on the detection of the fungus in organic fluids (sputum, blood, liquor) or tissues (histopathological assays), in the culture of biological samples and serological assays. The treatment of severe chronic respiratory acute or localized forms can be performed with oral azolic (itraconazol) and in the disseminated forms, the amphotericin B (preferentially the lipidic formulations) consists in the elected drug to initiate the therapy. Nowadays, histoplasmosis represents one of the most important systemic mycosis in the Americas, with broad distribution in all regions of Brazil. Key-words: Histoplasmosis. Histoplasma capsulatum. Systemic mycosis. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.A histoplasmose é uma micose sistêmica causada por um fungo dimórfico, o Histoplasma capsulatum. A doença foi pela primeira vez descrita por Samuel Darling, no Panamá, que entre 1905 e 1906 necropsiou três casos disseminados da doença, dois dos quais provenientes da Ilha de Martinica, onde hoje esta micose é reconhecidamente endêmica. A doença descrita por este patologista era similar à leishmaniose visceral e, portanto, foi por ele considerada erroneamente ser causada por um protozoário encapsulado. Somente em 193...
Cryptococcosis, a systemic disease caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans/ Cryptococcus gattii is more severe in immunocompromised individuals. This study aimed to analyze the epidemiology of the disease, the molecular characteristics and the antifungal susceptibility of C. neoformans isolated from patients treated in a Brazilian university hospital. This retrospective study was conducted in the Clinical Hospital, Federal University of Uberlândia, and evaluated cases of cryptococcosis and strains of C. neoformans isolated from 2004 to 2013. We evaluated 41 patients, 85% of whom were diagnosed with AIDS. The fungus was isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 21 patients (51%); 19.5% had fungemia and in 24% the agent was isolated from the CSF and blood, concurrently. Meningoencephalitis was the most frequent (75%) manifestation of infection. Despite adequate treatment, the mortality of the disease was 58.5%. Most isolates (97.5%) presented the VNI genotype (serotype A, var. grubii) and one isolate was genotyped as C. gattii (VGI); all the isolates were determined as mating type MATa and showed susceptibility to the tested antifungals (fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine). Although AIDS detection rates remain stable, opportunistic infections such as cryptococcosis remain as major causes of morbidity and mortality in these patients.
The role of other non-perfringens Clostridium species in endophthalmitis infections has not been analyzed. We describe a case of non-perfringens Clostridium endophthalmitis and review prior cases in the literature. Fulminant clinical presentations and poor visual outcomes are the rule, but a combined aggressive medical and surgical approach may conserve vision.
Ninety-six patients with cryptococcosis confirmed by clinical and laboratorial diagnosis were assessed in a prospective study in a University Hospital from March 1998 to November 2003; of these, 81.3% were HIV seropositive patients. Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from different samples, of which the cerebrospinal fluid 74 (77%) was the most frequent. C. neoformans var neoformans was isolated in 89 cases, where as C. neoformans var gattii was isolated in 7. Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis was detected in 56.3% cases. It was the most frequent unique clinical manifestation and the fungus was detected in the bloodstream in 13.5% of the patients. Among the risk factors, AIDS (81.3%) was the most frequently associated with mycosis. Direct examination carried out on 121 samples revealed the microorganism in 98.3% of them, while the culture was positive for all samples. Most of the patients (59.4%) were treated with amphotericin B or with triazoles, however 72.9% of them ended in death, in particular those patients with positive tests for the HIV (62.5%). Nowadays, cryptococcosis has been frequently diagnosed in our region and represents one of the opportunistic diseases with the highest morbidity and mortality rates in patients with AIDS.
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