Hydatid disease is a parasitic infection caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Splenic involvement is rare even in endemic areas. The aim of this study is to specify epidemiologic features, diagnostic tools, and therapeutic modalities of this uncommon entity. This is a retrospective study of 21 patients operated on for a splenic hydatid cyst between January 1996 and December 2011. The mean age was 43.8 years (range 15-72 years). Sixteen patients (76.2 %) had symptoms related to a splenic location of hydatid disease. While splenic hydatid disease was solitary in 8 patients (38.1 %), other locations were present in 13 patients (61.9 %), mainly in the liver. Most splenic cysts were type I (39.3 %) or III (42.8 %). Nine patients (42.8 %) underwent resection of the protruding dome with one postoperative complication (suppuration of residual cavity). Total and partial splenectomies were performed in nine and three patients, respectively, without any complication. No death was noted. After a mean follow-up period of 36 months (range 2-108 months), no recurrence was observed. Splenic hydatid cyst is a rare location. The diagnostic is usually easy, based on serology and imaging. The surgery is the mainstay of treatment. The type of surgical procedure depends on size, number, and location of the cyst. Total splenectomy is more effective but may have high morbidity and mortality and must be reserved to specific situations. Conservative procedure is safer but could increase the rate of recurrence and postoperative collection. Puncture aspiration injection reaspiration could be proposed for small cyst in inoperable patients.
Renewable energy systems (RESs), such as photovoltaic (PV) systems, are providing increasingly larger shares of power generation. PV systems are the fastest growing generation technology today with almost ~30% increase since 2015 reaching 509.3 GWp worldwide capacity by the end of 2018 and predicted to reach 1000 GWp by 2022. Due to the fluctuating and intermittent nature of PV systems, their large-scale integration into the grid poses momentous challenges. This paper provides a review of the technical challenges, such as frequency disturbances and voltage limit violation, related to the stability issues due to the large-scale and intensive PV system penetration into the power network. Possible solutions that mitigate the effect of large-scale PV system integration on the grid are also reviewed. Finally, power system stability when faults occur are outlined as well as their respective achievable solutions.
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