Chest X-ray radiography (CXR) is among the most frequently used medical imaging modalities. It has a preeminent value in the detection of multiple life-threatening diseases. Radiologists can visually inspect CXR images for the presence of diseases. Most thoracic diseases have very similar patterns, which makes diagnosis prone to human error and leads to misdiagnosis. Computer-aided detection (CAD) of lung diseases in CXR images is among the popular topics in medical imaging research. Machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) provided techniques to make this task more efficient and faster. Numerous experiments in the diagnosis of various diseases proved the potential of these techniques. In comparison to previous reviews our study describes in detail several publicly available CXR datasets for different diseases. It presents an overview of recent deep learning models using CXR images to detect chest diseases such as VGG, ResNet, DenseNet, Inception, EfficientNet, RetinaNet, and ensemble learning methods that combine multiple models. It summarizes the techniques used for CXR image preprocessing (enhancement, segmentation, bone suppression, and data-augmentation) to improve image quality and address data imbalance issues, as well as the use of DL models to speed-up the diagnosis process. This review also discusses the challenges present in the published literature and highlights the importance of interpretability and explainability to better understand the DL models’ detections. In addition, it outlines a direction for researchers to help develop more effective models for early and automatic detection of chest diseases.
X-ray images are the most widely used medical imaging modality. They are affordable, non-dangerous, accessible, and can be used to identify different diseases. Multiple computer-aided detection (CAD) systems using deep learning (DL) algorithms were recently proposed to support radiologists in identifying different diseases on medical images. In this paper, we propose a novel two-step approach for chest disease classification. The first is a multi-class classification step based on classifying X-ray images by infected organs into three classes (normal, lung disease, and heart disease). The second step of our approach is a binary classification of seven specific lungs and heart diseases. We use a consolidated dataset of 26,316 chest X-ray (CXR) images. Two deep learning methods are proposed in this paper. The first is called DC-ChestNet. It is based on ensembling deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) models. The second is named VT-ChestNet. It is based on a modified transformer model. VT-ChestNet achieved the best performance overcoming DC-ChestNet and state-of-the-art models (DenseNet121, DenseNet201, EfficientNetB5, and Xception). VT-ChestNet obtained an area under curve (AUC) of 95.13% for the first step. For the second step, it obtained an average AUC of 99.26% for heart diseases and an average AUC of 99.57% for lung diseases.
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