Recently, computer vision-based methods have started to replace conventional sensor based fire detection technologies. In general, visible band image sequences are used to automatically detect suspicious fire events in indoor or outdoor environments. There are several methods which aim to achieve automatic fire detection on visible band images, however, it is difficult to identify which method is the best performing as there is no fire image dataset which can be used to test the different methods. This paper presents a benchmarking of state of the art wildland fire color segmentation algorithms using a new 1 fire dataset introduced for the first time in this paper. The dataset contains images of wildland fire in different contexts (fuel, background, luminosity, smoke). All images of the dataset are characterized according to the principal color of the fire, the luminosity and the presence of smoke in the fire area. With this characterization, it has been possible to determine on which kind of images each algorithm is efficient. Also a new probabilistic fire segmentation algorithm is introduced and compared to the other techniques. Benchmarking is performed in order to assess performances of twelve algorithms that can be used for the segmentation of wildland fire images.
Detecting malignant lung nodules from computed tomography (CT) scans is a hard and time-consuming task for radiologists. To alleviate this burden, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems have been proposed. In recent years, deep learning approaches have shown impressive results outperforming classical methods in various fields. Nowadays, researchers are trying different deep learning techniques to increase the performance of CAD systems in lung cancer screening with computed tomography. In this work, we review recent state-of-the-art deep learning algorithms and architectures proposed as CAD systems for lung cancer detection. They are divided into two categories—(1) Nodule detection systems, which from the original CT scan detect candidate nodules; and (2) False positive reduction systems, which from a set of given candidate nodules classify them into benign or malignant tumors. The main characteristics of the different techniques are presented, and their performance is analyzed. The CT lung datasets available for research are also introduced. Comparison between the different techniques is presented and discussed.
Infrared (IR) reflectography has been used for many years for the detection of underdrawings on panel paintings. Advances in the fields of IR sensors and optics have impelled the wide spread use of IR reflectography by several recognized Art Museums and specialized laboratories around the World. The transparency or opacity of a painting is the result of a complex combination of the optical properties of the painting pigments and the underdrawing material, as well as the type of illumination source and the sensor characteristics. For this reason, recent researches have been directed towards the study of multispectral approaches that could provide simultaneous and complementary information of an artwork. The present work relies on non−simultaneous multispectral inspection using a set of detectors covering from the ultraviolet to the terahertz spectra. It is observed that underdrawings contrast increases with wavelength up to 1700 nm and, then, gradually decreases. In addition, it is shown that IR thermography, i.e., temperature maps or thermograms, could be used simultaneously as an alternative technique for the detection of underdrawings besides the detection of subsurface defects.
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