This research presents a new scale, the health regulatory focus scale, which measures an individual's tendency to use promotion or prevention strategies in the pursuit of health goals. We conducted five studies in France to develop the scale which is made up of two subscales for prevention and promotion. We also tested the scale's psychometric properties and demonstrated its two-factor dimensionality, internal and test-retest reliability, and convergent, nomological, predictive and discriminant validity. The health subscales showed good predictive validity in that they correlated with health behaviors better than the general regulatory focus subscales. For instance, health promotion focus predicted dentist visits while general promotion focus did not, and health prevention focus predicted the use of prescription and over-the-counter drugs while general prevention focus did not. Also as expected, general prevention focus predicted avoidance of risky vacation behaviors while health prevention focus did not. The health subscales either did not correlate or correlated weakly with positive and negative affectivity and general risk aversion indicating good discriminant validity. The one-year test-retest reliabilities were adequate for both subscales.
The aim of this study is to explore the effects of gender and salient identity on sustainable consumption. In particular, this research investigates how gender effects on sustainable consumption may be contingent to the identity that is salient to the consumer during the evaluation process (personal vs. social). According to identity‐based motivation theory, the salience of personal identity means that people temporarily think about themselves as individuals, whereas social identity salience means that people see themselves as part of a group. The results from an experimental study indicated that when personal identity was salient, female participants declared higher levels of sustainable consumption compared with male participants. However, when social identity was salient, male participants increased their sustainable consumption intentions to the same level as female participants. Finally, this research discusses the theoretical and managerial implications on identities, gender and sustainable consumption.
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AbstractPurpose -Evaluative processes made in retail environments have been shown to vary between groups, particularly between men and women. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that a hedonic or utilitarian store atmosphere leads to different evaluations depending on the consumer's gender orientation. Design/methodology/approach -A pre-test identifies hedonic and utilitarian store atmospheres. A main study uses an experimental design to compare the impact of these atmospheres on overall store quality, price perceptions and willingness to pay for products in these stores in function of the consumers' gender orientation. Findings -The results show that hedonic atmospheres lead to higher quality perception, higher price perception and higher purchase intention among female-oriented consumers. Moreover, female-oriented consumers are willing to pay 32 per cent more for the same product when this product is offered in a hedonic store atmosphere. Retailers should consider carefully how store design affects evaluations among male versus female-oriented consumers.Research limitation/implications -The use of students reduces the generalisability of the results. Future research can test the propositions further. Originality/value -The results suggest that perceptions of store atmospheres are moderated by gender orientation, which is a segmentation variable that may be more relevant in today's gender-blurring retail environments. Furthermore, the results show how value can be perceived from store atmospheres and transferred to products.
The present study focuses on the effects of graphic warnings related to excessive gambling. It is based upon a theoretical model derived from both the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) and the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM). We focus on video lottery terminal (VLT), one of the most hazardous format in the gaming industry. Our cohort consisted of 103 actual gamblers who reported previous gambling activity on VLT's on a regular basis. We assess the effectiveness of graphic warnings vs. text-only warnings and the effectiveness of two major arguments (i.e., family vs. financial disruption). A 2 × 2 factorial design was used to test the direct and combined effects of two variables (i.e., warning content and presence vs. absence of a graphic). It was found that the presence of a graphic enhances both cognitive appraisal and fear, and has positive effects on the Depth of Information Processing. In addition, graphic content combined with family disruptions is more effective for changing attitudes and complying with the warning than other combinations of the manipulated variables. It is proposed that ELM and PMT complement each other to explain the effects of warnings. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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