Understanding the abundances of molecules observed in dense interstellar clouds requires knowledge of the rates of gas phase reactions between two neutral species. However, reactions possessing an activation barrier were considered too slow to play any important role at the low temperatures in these clouds. Here we show that despite the presence of a barrier the rate coefficient for the reaction between the hydroxyl radical (OH) and methanol, one of the most abundant organic molecules in space, is almost two orders of magnitude larger at 63K than previously measured at ~200K. We also observe formation of the methoxy radical product that was recently detected in space. These results are interpreted through the formation of a hydrogen-bonded complex that is sufficiently long-lived to undergo quantum mechanical tunnelling to form products. We postulate that this tunnelling
Abstract. The lifetime of methane is controlled to a very large extent by the abundance of the OH radical. The tropics are a key region for methane removal, with oxidation in the lower tropical troposphere dominating the global methane removal budget (Bloss et al., 2005). In tropical forested environments where biogenic VOC emissions are high and NO x concentrations are low, OH concentrations are assumed to be low due to rapid reactions with sink species such as isoprene. New, simultaneous measurements of OH concentrations and OH reactivity, k OH , in a Borneo rainforest are reported and show much higher OH than predicted, with mean peak concentrations of ∼2.5×10 6 molecule cm −3 (10 min average) observed around solar noon. Whilst j (O 1 D) and humidity were high, low O 3 concentrations limited the OH production from O 3 photolysis. Measured OH reactivity was very high, peaking at a diurnal average of 29.1±8.5 s −1 , corresponding to an OH lifetime of only 34 ms. To maintain the observed OH concentration given the measured OH reactivity requires a rate of OH production approximately 10 times greater than calculated using all measured OH sources. A test of our current understanding of the chemistry within a tropical rainforest was made using a detailed zero-dimensional model to compare with measurements. The model overpredicted the observed HO 2 concentrations and significantly under-predicted OH concentrations. Inclusion of an additional OH source formed as a recycled product of OH iniCorrespondence to: L. K. Whalley (firstname.lastname@example.org) tiated isoprene oxidation improved the modelled OH agreement but only served to worsen the HO 2 model/measurement agreement. To replicate levels of both OH and HO 2 , a process that recycles HO 2 to OH is required; equivalent to the OH recycling effect of 0.74 ppbv of NO. This recycling step increases OH concentrations by 88 % at noon and has wide implications, leading to much higher predicted OH over tropical forests, with a concomitant reduction in the CH 4 lifetime and increase in the rate of VOC degradation.
Abstract. Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion (FAGE) has been used to detect ambient levels of OH and HO2 radicals at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory, located in the tropical Atlantic marine boundary layer, during May and June 2007. Midday radical concentrations were high, with maximum concentrations of 9 ×106 molecule cm−3 and 6×108 molecule cm−3 observed for OH and HO2, respectively. A box model incorporating the detailed Master Chemical Mechanism, extended to include halogen chemistry, heterogeneous loss processes and constrained by all available measurements including halogen and nitrogen oxides, has been used to assess the chemical and physical parameters controlling the radical chemistry. The model was able to reproduce the daytime radical concentrations to within the 1 σ measurement uncertainty of 20% during the latter half of the measurement period but significantly under-predicted [HO2] by 39% during the first half of the project. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate that elevated [HCHO] (~2 ppbv) on specific days during the early part of the project, which were much greater than the mean [HCHO] (328 pptv) used to constrain the model, could account for a large portion of the discrepancy between modelled and measured [HO2] at this time. IO and BrO, although present only at a few pptv, constituted ~19% of the instantaneous sinks for HO2, whilst aerosol uptake and surface deposition to the ocean accounted for a further 23% of the HO2 loss at noon. Photolysis of HOI and HOBr accounted for ~13% of the instantaneous OH formation. Taking into account that halogen oxides increase the oxidation of NOx (NO → NO2), and in turn reduce the rate of formation of OH from the reaction of HO2 with NO, OH concentrations were estimated to be 9% higher overall due to the presence of halogens. The increase in modelled OH from halogen chemistry gives an estimated 9% shorter lifetime for methane in this region, and the inclusion of halogen chemistry is necessary to model the observed daily cycle of O3 destruction that is observed at the surface. Due to surface losses, we hypothesise that HO2 concentrations increase with height and therefore contribute a larger fraction of the O3 destruction than at the surface.
Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the kinetics of HO 2 radical uptake onto submicron inorganic salt aerosols. HO 2 reactive uptake coefficients were measured at room temperature using an aerosol flow tube and the Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion (FAGE)
The kinetics of the reaction between O atoms and OH radicals, both in their electronic ground state, have been investigated at temperatures down to ca. 39 K. The experiments employed a CRESU (Cinétique deRéaction en Ecoulement Supersonique Uniforme) apparatus to attain low temperatures. Both reagents were created using pulsed laser photolysis at 157.6 nm of mixtures containing H2O and O2 diluted in N2 carrier gas. OH radicals were formed by both direct photolysis of H2O and the reaction between O(1D) atoms and H2O. O(3P) atoms were formed both as a direct product of O2 photolysis and by the rapid quenching of O(1D) atoms formed in that photolysis by N2 and O2. The rates of removal of OH radicals were observed by laser-induced fluorescence, and concentrations of O atoms were estimated from a knowledge of the absorption cross-section for O2 at 157.6 nm and of the measured fluence from the F2 laser at this wavelength. To obtain a best estimate of the rate constants for the O + OH reaction, we had to correct the raw experimental data for the following: (a) the decrease in the laser fluence along the jet due to the absorption by O2 in the gas mixture, (b) the increase in temperature, and consequent decrease in gas density, as a result of energy released in the photochemical and chemical processes that occurred, and (c) the formation of OH(v = 0) as a result of relaxation, particularly by O2, of OH radicals formed in levels v > 0. Once these corrections were made, the rate constant for reaction between OH and O(3P) atoms showed little variation in the temperature range of 142 to 39 K and had a value of (3.5 +/- 1.0) x 10(-11) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1). It is recommended that this value is used in future chemical models of dense interstellar clouds.
Abstract. The reactions of ozone with alkenes are an important source of hydroxyl (OH) radicals; however, quantification of their importance is hindered by uncertainties in the absolute OH yield. Hydroxyl radical yields for the gas-phase ozonolysis of isoprene are determined in this paper by four different methods: (1) The use of cyclohexane as an OH scavenger, and the production of cyclohexanone, (2) The use of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene as an OH tracer, and the diminution in its concentration, (3) A kinetic method in which the OH yield was obtained by performing a series of pseudo-first-order experiments in the presence or absence of an OH scavenger (cyclohexane), (4) The OH and HO 2 yields were determined by fitting the temporal OH and HO 2 profiles following direct detection of absolute OH and HO 2 concentrations by laser induced fluorescence at low pressure (Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion-FAGE). The following OH yields for the ozonolysis of isoprene were obtained, relative to alkene consumed, for each method: (1) Scavenger (0.25±0.04), (2) Tracer (0.25±0.03), (3) Kinetic study (0.27±0.02), and (4) Direct observation (0.26±0.02), the error being one standard deviation. An averaged OH yield of 0.26±0.02 is recommended at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and this result is compared with recent literature determinations. The HO 2 yield was directly determined for the first time using FAGE to be 0.26±0.03.
The rate coefficients (k) for reactions of OH with acetone, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and dimethyl ether (DME) have been measured in the temperature range 86-112 K using a pulsed Laval nozzle apparatus. Large increases in k at lower temperatures were observed, with k(86K)/k(295K) = 334 for acetone, and k(93K)/k(295K) = 72 and 3, for MEK and DME respectively. A mechanism involving the formation of a hydrogen bonded complex prior to an overall barrier on the potential energy surface is proposed to explain this behaviour.
Abstract.A field instrument utilising the artificial generation of OH radicals in a sliding injector flow-tube reactor with detection by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy has been developed to measure the rate of decay of OH by reaction with its atmospheric sinks. The OH reactivity instrument has been calibrated using known concentrations of CO, NO 2 and single hydrocarbons in a flow of zero air, and the impact of recycling of OH via the reaction HO 2 +NO→OH+NO 2 on the measured OH reactivity has been quantified. As well as a detailed description of the apparatus, the capabilities of the new instrument are illustrated using representative results from deployment in the semi-polluted marine boundary layer at the Weybourne Atmospheric Observatory, UK, and in a tropical rainforest at the Bukit Atur Global Atmospheric Watch station, Danum Valley, Borneo.
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