Figure 1a. In experiments with similar dust surface areas, the temperature at which 50% of droplets were frozen was 250.5 K for K-feldspar, followed by 247 K for Na/Ca-feldspar, 242.5 K for quartz, and below 237.5 K for the clay minerals and calcite. These results suggest that it is the minerals of the feldspar group, in particular K-feldspar, that make mineral dust an effective immersion mode IN in the atmosphere. This data contrasts with the prevailing view 1,2 that clay minerals are the most important component of atmospheric mineral dust for ice nucleation.Droplet freezing temperatures are dependent on experimental parameters such as droplet volume and mineral surface area and are therefore of limited value 2 . In order to normalise the efficiency with which a material nucleates ice we determine the nucleation sites per unit surface area 2,11,14 (n s ; Figure 1b; see supplementary online material). This method of quantifying ice nucleation efficiency neglects the role of time dependence in nucleation, on the basis that IN particle-to-particle variability is more important than the time dependence of nucleation 2,11,14,15 . Our derived n s values for 9 -19 μm size droplets are shown in Figure 1b.This data shows that the feldspar minerals, in particular K-feldspar, are the most efficient mineral dust IN per unit surface area.In airborne dusts the abundance of clay minerals tends to be greater than the feldspars, hence it is not clear which minerals dominate ice nucleation in the atmosphere. The n s values presented in Figure 1b were combined with the average mineralogical composition of atmospheric dust to estimate the temperature-dependent IN concentration (shown in Figure 2). We have assumed that all particles are spherical in order to estimate their surface area and have made two limiting calculations, one assuming that dust particles are internally mixed (i.e. each particle contains all eight minerals) and the other assuming they are externally mixed (each particle is composed of an individual mineral). The mixing state of atmospheric dust is poorly constrained but atmospheric dust falls between these two limiting cases 16 .Despite only accounting for 3% of atmospheric dust by mass, K-feldspar dominates the number of IN above 248 K in both the internally and externally mixed cases. One potential caveat to this conclusion is that clay mineral particles may have a smaller particle size than feldspar or quartz 13 , and therefore may have a greater surface area per unit mass which would increase the concentration of clay IN. However, even if the surface area of the clays was 100 times higher (likely an overestimate 7 ), the feldspars remain the dominant ice nucleating minerals (Supplementary Figure 4). contains the most K-feldspar (20 wt%). In general, the more feldspar a sample contains the higher the freezing temperature. We hypothesise that that the feldspar component controlled the nucleation of ice in these experiments, highlighting the need to characterise sample mineralogy in such work.The mineralog...
Abstract. Atmospheric dust rich in illite is transported globally from arid regions and impacts cloud properties through the nucleation of ice. We present measurements of ice nucleation in water droplets containing known quantities of an illite rich powder under atmospherically relevant conditions. The illite rich powder used here, NX illite, has a similar mineralogical composition to atmospheric mineral dust sampled in remote locations, i.e. dust which has been subject to long range transport, cloud processing and sedimentation. Arizona Test Dust, which is used in other ice nucleation studies as a model atmospheric dust, has a significantly different mineralogical composition and we suggest that NX illite is a better surrogate of natural atmospheric dust.Using optical microscopy, heterogeneous nucleation in the immersion mode by NX illite was observed to occur dominantly between 246 K and the homogeneous freezing limit. In general, higher freezing temperatures were observed when larger surface areas of NX illite were present within the drops. Homogenous nucleation was observed to occur in droplets containing low surface areas of NX illite. We show that NX illite exhibits strong particle to particle variability in terms of ice nucleating ability, with ∼1 in 10 5 particles dominating ice nucleation when high surface areas were present. In fact, this work suggests that the bulk of atmospheric mineral dust particles may be less efficient at nucleating ice than assumed in current model parameterisations.For droplets containing ≤2×10 −6 cm 2 of NX illite, freezing temperatures did not noticeably change when the cooling rate was varied by an order of magnitude. The data obtained during cooling experiments (surface area ≤2×10 −6 cm 2 ) is shown to be inconsistent with the single component stochastic model, but is well described by the singular model (n s (236.2 K≤T ≤247.5 K) = exp(6.53043×10 4 − 8.2153088. However, droplets continued to freeze when the temperature was held constant, which is inconsistent with the time independent singular model. We show that this apparent discrepancy can be resolved using a multiple component stochastic model in which it is assumed that there are many types of nucleation sites, each with a unique temperature dependent nucleation coefficient. Cooling rate independence can be achieved with this time dependent model if the nucleation rate coefficients increase very rapidly with decreasing temperature, thus reconciling our measurement of nucleation at constant temperature with the cooling rate independence.
Traditionally, ice I was considered to exist in two well-defined crystalline forms at ambient pressure: stable hexagonal ice (ice Ih) and metastable cubic ice (ice Ic). However, it is becoming increasingly evident that what has been called cubic ice in the past does not have a structure consistent with the cubic crystal system. Instead, it is a stacking-disordered material containing cubic sequences interlaced with hexagonal sequences, which is termed stacking-disordered ice (ice Isd). In this article, we summarise previous work on ice with stacking disorder including ice that was called cubic ice in the past. We also present new experimental data which shows that ice which crystallises after heterogeneous nucleation in water droplets containing solid inclusions also contains stacking disorder even at freezing temperatures of around -15 °C. This supports the results from molecular simulations, that the structure of ice that crystallises initially from supercooled water is always stacking-disordered and that this metastable ice can transform to the stable hexagonal phase subject to the kinetics of recrystallization. We also show that stacking disorder in ice which forms from water droplets is quantitatively distinct from ice made via other routes. The emerging picture of ice I is that of a very complex material which frequently contains stacking disorder and this stacking disorder can vary in complexity depending on the route of formation and thermal history.
The freezing of water to ice is fundamentally important to fields as diverse as cloud formation to cryopreservation. At ambient conditions, ice is considered to exist in two crystalline forms: stable hexagonal ice and metastable cubic ice. Using X-ray diffraction data and Monte Carlo simulations, we show that ice that crystallizes homogeneously from supercooled water is neither of these phases. The resulting ice is disordered in one dimension and therefore possesses neither cubic nor hexagonal symmetry and is instead composed of randomly stacked layers of cubic and hexagonal sequences. We refer to this ice as stacking-disordered ice I. Stacking disorder and stacking faults have been reported earlier for metastable ice I, but only for ice crystallizing in mesopores and in samples recrystallized from high-pressure ice phases rather than in water droplets. Review of the literature reveals that almost all ice that has been identified as cubic ice in previous diffraction studies and generated in a variety of ways was most likely stacking-disordered ice I with varying degrees of stacking disorder. These findings highlight the need to reevaluate the physical and thermodynamic properties of this metastable ice as a function of the nature and extent of stacking disorder using well-characterized samples.
Abstract. Agricultural dust emissions have been estimated to contribute around 20 % to the global dust burden. In contrast to dusts from arid source regions, the ice-nucleating abilities of which have been relatively well studied, soil dusts from fertile sources often contain a substantial fraction of organic matter. Using an experimental methodology which is sensitive to a wide range of ice nucleation efficiencies, we have characterised the immersion mode ice-nucleating activities of dusts (d < 11 µm) extracted from fertile soils collected at four locations around England. By controlling droplet sizes, which ranged in volume from 10 −12 to 10 −6 L (concentration = 0.02 to 0.1 wt % dust), we have been able to determine the ice nucleation behaviour of soil dust particles at temperatures ranging from 267 K (−6 • C) down to the homogeneous limit of freezing at about 237 K (−36 • C). At temperatures above 258 K (−15 • C) we find that the ice-nucleating activity of soil dusts is diminished by heat treatment or digestion with hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that a major fraction of the ice nuclei stems from biogenic components in the soil. However, below 258 K, we find that the ice active site densities tend towards those expected from the mineral components in the soils, suggesting that the inorganic fraction of soil dusts, in particular the K-feldspar fraction, becomes increasingly important in the initiation of the ice phase at lower temperatures. We conclude that dusts from agricultural activities could contribute significantly to atmospheric IN concentrations, if such dusts exhibit similar activities to those observed in the current laboratory study.
Ice-nucleating particles can modify cloud properties with implications for climate and the hydrological cycle; hence, it is important to understand which aerosol particle types nucleate ice and how efficiently they do so. It has been shown that aerosol particles such as natural dusts, volcanic ash, bacteria and pollen can act as ice-nucleating particles, but the ice-nucleating ability of combustion ashes has not been studied. Combustion ashes are major by-products released during the combustion of solid fuels and a significant amount of these ashes are emitted into the atmosphere either during combustion or via aerosolization of bottom ashes. Here, we show that combustion ashes (coal fly ash, wood bottom ash, domestic bottom ash, and coal bottom ash) nucleate ice in the immersion mode at conditions relevant to mixed-phase clouds. Hence, combustion ashes could play an important role in primary ice formation in mixed-phase clouds, especially in clouds that are formed near the emission source of these aerosol particles. In order to quantitatively assess the impact of combustion ashes on mixed-phase clouds, we propose that the atmospheric abundance of combustion ashes should be quantified since up to now they have mostly been classified together with mineral dust particles. Also, in reporting ice residue compositions, a distinction should be made between natural mineral dusts and combustion ashes in order to quantify the contribution of combustion ashes to atmospheric ice nucleation. I.: Utilization and disposal of fly ash and other coal Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5195-5210, 2015 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/15/5195/2015/
Abstract. Atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is likely to exist in a semi-solid or glassy state, particularly at low temperatures and humidities. Previously, it has been shown that glassy aqueous citric acid aerosol is able to nucleate ice heterogeneously under conditions relevant to cirrus in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). In this study we test if glassy aerosol distributions with a range of chemical compositions heterogeneously nucleate ice under cirrus conditions. Three single component aqueous solution aerosols (raffinose, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-DL-mandelic acid (HMMA) and levoglucosan) and one multi component aqueous solution aerosol (raffinose mixed with five dicarboxylic acids and ammonium sulphate) were studied in both the liquid and glassy states at a large cloud simulation chamber. The investigated organic compounds have similar functionality to oxidised organic material found in atmospheric aerosol and have estimated temperature/humidity induced glass transition thresholds that fall within the range predicted for atmospheric SOA. A small fraction of aerosol particles of all compositions were found to nucleate ice heterogeneously in the deposition mode at temperatures relevant to the TTL (< 200 K). Raffinose and HMMA, which form glasses at higher temperatures, nucleated ice heterogeneously at temperatures as high as 214.6 and 218.5 K respectively. We present the calculated ice active surface site density, n s , of the aerosols tested here and also of glassy citric acid aerosol as a function of relative humidity with respect to ice (RH i ). We also propose a parameterisation which can be used to estimate heterogeneous ice nucleation by glassy aerosol for use in cirrus cloud models up to ∼ 220 K. Finally, we show that heterogeneous nucleation by glassy aerosol may compete with ice nucleation on mineral dust particles in midlatitudes cirrus.
Abstract. The ice nucleation potential of airborne glassy aqueous aerosol particles has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 247 and 216 K. Four different solutes were used as proxies for oxygenated organic matter found in the atmosphere: raffinose, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-DL-mandelic acid (HMMA), levoglucosan, and a multi-component mixture of raffinose with five dicarboxylic acids and ammonium sulphate. Similar to previous experiments with citric acid aerosols, all particles were found to nucleate ice heterogeneously before reaching the homogeneous freezing threshold provided that the freezing cycles were started well below the respective glass transition temperatures of the compounds; this is discussed in detail in a separate article. In this contribution, we identify a further mechanism by which glassy aerosols can promote ice nucleation below the homogeneous freezing limit. If the glassy aerosol particles are probed in freezing cycles started only a few degrees below their respective glass transition temperatures, they enter the liquid regime of the state diagram upon increasing relative humidity (moisture-induced glass-to-liquid transition) before being able to act as heterogeneous ice nuclei. Ice formation then only occurs by homogeneous freezing at elevated supersaturation levels. When ice forms the remaining solution freeze concentrates and re-vitrifies. If these ice cloud processed glassy aerosol particles are then probed in a second freezing cycle at the same temperature, they catalyse ice formation at a supersaturation threshold between 5 and 30 % with respect to ice. By analogy with the enhanced ice nucleation ability of insoluble ice nuclei like mineral dusts after they nucleate ice once, we refer to this phenomenon as pre-activation. We propose a number of possible explanations for why glassy aerosol particles that have re-vitrified in contact with the ice crystals during the preceding homogeneous freezing cycle exhibit pre-activation: they may retain small ice embryos in pores, have footprints on their surface which match the ice lattice, or simply have a much greater surface area or different surface microstructure compared to the unprocessed glassy aerosol particles. Pre-activation must be considered for the correct interpretation of experimental results on the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of glassy aerosol particles and may provide a mechanism of producing a population of extremely efficient ice nuclei in the upper troposphere.
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