Zinc oxide elements have been developed, which contain praseodymium oxide rather than bismuth oxide as a principal additive component. These elements have been used to produce gapless surge arresters with rated voltages up to 360kV. The 2-phase microstructure of these elements increases the active area of grain boundaries which is the origin of non-linearity in V-I relation.Consequently the effective area of the electrodes is increased resulting in a higher apparent dielectric constant of the element by a fac…
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