Large ovarian follicles are primary characteristics of oviparous species. The development of such follicles is crucially governed by strict intrinsic complex regulation. Many aspects of the genetic basis of this regulation remain obscure. To identify the dominant genes controlling follicular development in the chicken, growing follicles (400–1,600 μm in diameter) were selected for RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. Comparing the 400-μm follicles with 800-μm follicles identified a total of 3,627 differentially expressed genes (1,792 upregulated and 1,835 downregulated genes). Comparing the 400-μm follicles with 1,600-μm follicles revealed 9,650 differentially expressed genes (including 4,848 upregulated and 4,802 downregulated genes). Comparing 800-μm with 1,600-μm follicles revealed a total of 6,779 differentially expressed genes (3,427 upregulated and 3,352 downregulated genes). Transcriptome analysis revealed that genes related to the extracellular matrix–receptor interactions, steroid biosynthesis, cell adhesion, and phagosomes displayed remarkable differential expressions. Relative to 400-μm follicles, collagen content, production of steroid hormones, cell adhesion, and phagocytic factors were significantly increased in the 1,600-μm follicles. This study identifies the dominant genes involved in the promotion of follicular development in oviparous vertebrates and represents the extraordinary gene regulation pattern related to development of the growing follicles in poultry.