2006
DOI: 10.1350/ijps.2006.8.4.294 View full text |Buy / Rent full text
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Abstract: Noel Otu is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at The University of Texas at Brownsville. He has experience in both law enforcement and correction. His research interests combine academic, professional and life experiences in the study of culture and punishment, and law enforcement. He has worked extensively with at-risk juveniles, enabling them to master a variety of computer skills and techniques which will keep them away from criminal activities. ABSTRACT The United States Constitu… Show more

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“…Developing production functions describing their activities is, unfortunately, not possible as it is possible for most business enterprises (Ritsert and Pekar, 2009). Policing is a difficult and complex occupation (Otu, 2006). In light of police reforms, police professionalism has come to be defined through changes in police organisation, administration and technology in the past 20 or 30 years such as those to improve the efficiency of the police service and performance in the deterrence and apprehension of criminals (Douthit, 1975).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
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“…Developing production functions describing their activities is, unfortunately, not possible as it is possible for most business enterprises (Ritsert and Pekar, 2009). Policing is a difficult and complex occupation (Otu, 2006). In light of police reforms, police professionalism has come to be defined through changes in police organisation, administration and technology in the past 20 or 30 years such as those to improve the efficiency of the police service and performance in the deterrence and apprehension of criminals (Douthit, 1975).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…5.5), particularly in the context of the communities where they live (Taylor, 2001, p. 164). There are a number of areas where the perceptions of police practitioners and community stake holders may differ, for example crime and residential property design (Cozens, Hillier, & Prescott, 2001), police brutality (Otu, 2006), fear of crime (Cozens, Neale, Whitaker, & Hillier, 2003), hot spots of fear and concern (Taylor, p. 369), ASB and public disorder (Crawford & Flint, 2009) and ASB identification (Millie, 2008). It is important that officers are not left with an 'empathy void' (Peace, 2006) in their skills-base by focusing their training on technical aspects of the law and procedures.…”
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“…The contention that law enforcement officers are always out to abuse innocent citizens pervades many US communities, and this is one of the most intellectually deceiving myths put upon the unsuspecting public. Police officers are by and large law-abiding citizens who wear a uniform to enforce federal, state, and local laws (Otu, 2006). Police-citizen violence is hardly a new problem, but it has risen to crisis proportions because of technological advancements, industrialisation, immigration, drugs, and the availability of weapons.…”
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“…Hence, it is difficult to provide a suitable operational definition that could be applied nationally and internationally for the use of force by police departments. Until we can define violence with some certainty, empirical research that attempts to accurately measure its occurrence or its rate of reduction is, by default, called into question (Klockars, 1996) Towards Definitions of Police, Violence, and Innocent Victims Once again, police officers are generally considered to be lawabiding citizens who are tasked with enforcing the laws at all jurisdictional levels (Otu, 2006). At the same time, some police officers see themselves as crime fighters, while others consider themselves helpers of those who cannot help themselves.…”
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