2016
DOI: 10.1007/s11125-016-9382-5
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The evolution of policy enactment on gender-based violence in schools

Abstract: This article examines how policies and strategies to address school-related gender-based violence have evolved since 2000, when gender-based violence within education was largely invisible. Through an exploration of policy enactment in three countries-Liberia, South Africa, and Brazil-it traces remarkable progress in policy, programmes, and research. The analysis asks why, despite such achievements, there is little evidence that these policy enactments have succeeded in reducing violence. The case studies reve… Show more

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Cited by 21 publications
(33 citation statements)
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“…International treaties do not pay specific attention to school-related GBV (Parkes 2016); however, policy should focus on the 'practical inadequacies of (policy) enactment in the resourcing, training, and building-in mechanisms for accountability related to SRGBV [school-related GBV]' (Parkes 2016: 102). All implemented or proposed programmatic changes should have accessible outcome measures.…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…International treaties do not pay specific attention to school-related GBV (Parkes 2016); however, policy should focus on the 'practical inadequacies of (policy) enactment in the resourcing, training, and building-in mechanisms for accountability related to SRGBV [school-related GBV]' (Parkes 2016: 102). All implemented or proposed programmatic changes should have accessible outcome measures.…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Parkes's (2016: 93) study illustrated the problems of implementing policy when definitions of what constitutes violence are not uniform, and it pushed for changes in the 'middle level' (i.e., school, community, district and national levels). The clear conceptualisation and use of culturally IJCJ&SD 39 www.crimejusticejournal.com © 2020 9(1) specific policies is vital for success (Parkes 2016). Through strong commitment at the institutional level, institutions can shift norms and values to allow women and girls equal access to resources and reduce discrimination (UNESCO 2019: 23).…”
Section: Resultsmentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…These female participants attributed their lack of influence in the policy process and the discrimination they faced partly to the controversial nature of CSE, but also to their status as (young, unmarried) women. Thus, adopting CSE as a national policy does not merely mean ensuring that it is mentioned in policy text, but also requires the continuous challenging of hierarchical social and gender regimes at all levels of the policy adoption process (Connell 2012b;Parkes 2016).…”
Section: Methodsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…This legacy remains today, where many policies reflect Eurocentric or Western ideals. Furthermore, Parkes (2016) concludes, based on an analysis of policy enactment on school-related gender-based violence, that policy enactment is not only a matter of overcoming practical challenges; 'It is about reflecting on our deeply held beliefs and practices, through which we knowingly and unknowingly collude with gender-based violence' (p. 103). Thus, policy adoption and reformulation require creating dialogues between actors and institutions at various levels to gain conceptual clarity, while challenging gender and power relations (Unterhalter and North 2017; Connell 2012b).…”
Section: Reformulationmentioning
confidence: 99%