2017
DOI: 10.1111/lam.12781
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Abstract: Over the last three decades, successful implementation of the diphtheria vaccination in the developed and developing countries has reduced the infections caused by the toxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae, but a concomitant increase in the invasive infections due to the nontoxigenic strains was seen. In addition, the recent reports on the emergence of nontoxigenic toxin gene-bearing strains, having the potential to revert back to toxigenic form poses a significant threat to human beings. Besides in… Show more

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Cited by 15 publications
(9 citation statements)
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“…In the NTTB type, the tox gene is detected by PCR and considered as toxigenic bacteria, but it is non-toxigenic phenotypically. Therefore, the toxigenicity detected by PCR should be further confirmed by the Elek test or Vero cell cytotoxicity phenotypically (7)(8)(9). Tables 1 and 2 show the advantages of PCR, especially in terms of sensitivity.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
See 1 more Smart Citation
“…In the NTTB type, the tox gene is detected by PCR and considered as toxigenic bacteria, but it is non-toxigenic phenotypically. Therefore, the toxigenicity detected by PCR should be further confirmed by the Elek test or Vero cell cytotoxicity phenotypically (7)(8)(9). Tables 1 and 2 show the advantages of PCR, especially in terms of sensitivity.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…However, to date, the WHO has not recommended PCR as a confirmatory method for diphtheria. The WHO recommends PCR as the screening method for bacterial toxigenicity that should be confirmed by the Elek test (4,(7)(8)(9). PCR cannot be used to identify bacterial toxigenicity of non-toxigenic tox gene-bearing (NTTB) type correctly.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Respiratory diphtheria can be lifethreatening. The pseudomembrane can cause difficulty swallowing and airway obstruction, and dissemination of the diphtheria toxin can cause necrosis at distant sites (myocarditis and neuritis) (2).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Cutaneous diphtheria may be caused by toxigenic or nontoxigenic strains. Infection appears as chronic, nonhealing sores or shallow ulcers and may develop in a preexisting wound (2). Frequently, cultures from these wounds are polymicrobial.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
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