SummaryBackgroundMore than 500 000 neonatal deaths per year result from possible serious bacterial infections (pSBIs), but the causes are largely unknown. We investigated the incidence of community-acquired infections caused by specific organisms among neonates in south Asia.MethodsFrom 2011 to 2014, we identified babies through population-based pregnancy surveillance at five sites in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan. Babies were visited at home by community health workers up to ten times from age 0 to 59 days. Illness meeting the WHO definition of pSBI and randomly selected healthy babies were referred to study physicians. The primary objective was to estimate proportions of specific infectious causes by blood culture and Custom TaqMan Array Cards molecular assay (Thermo Fisher, Bartlesville, OK, USA) of blood and respiratory samples.Findings6022 pSBI episodes were identified among 63 114 babies (95·4 per 1000 livebirths). Causes were attributed in 28% of episodes (16% bacterial and 12% viral). Mean incidence of bacterial infections was 13·2 (95% credible interval [CrI] 11·2–15·6) per 1000 livebirths and of viral infections was 10·1 (9·4–11·6) per 1000 livebirths. The leading pathogen was respiratory syncytial virus (5·4, 95% CrI 4·8–6·3 episodes per 1000 livebirths), followed by Ureaplasma spp (2·4, 1·6–3·2 episodes per 1000 livebirths). Among babies who died, causes were attributed to 46% of pSBI episodes, among which 92% were bacterial. 85 (83%) of 102 blood culture isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, gentamicin, or a combination of these drugs.InterpretationNon-attribution of a cause in a high proportion of patients suggests that a substantial proportion of pSBI episodes might not have been due to infection. The predominance of bacterial causes among babies who died, however, indicates that appropriate prevention measures and management could substantially affect neonatal mortality. Susceptibility of bacterial isolates to first-line antibiotics emphasises the need for prudent and limited use of newer-generation antibiotics. Furthermore, the predominance of atypical bacteria we found and high incidence of respiratory syncytial virus indicated that changes in management strategies for treatment and prevention are needed. Given the burden of disease, prevention of respiratory syncytial virus would have a notable effect on the overall health system and achievement of Sustainable Development Goal.FundingBill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen involved in various infections ranging from minor soft-tissue infections to more severe infections such as ventilator-associated pneumonia and bacteremia. The severity and the type of infections depend on the genetic and phenotypic variations of the strains. In this study, we compared the extent of biofilm formation and motility displayed by 60 multidrug-resistant A. baumannii clinical strains isolated from blood and sputum samples from patients from Southern India. Our results showed that isolates from the sputum samples formed significantly more robust biofilm compared to the blood isolates. On the other hand, we observed that the blood isolates were more motile than the sputum isolates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that systematically evaluated the correlation between these two phenotypic traits and the nature of the isolates.
Background Recently, in India, there has been a shift from NDM to OXA48-like carbapenemases. OXA-181 and OXA-232 are the frequently produced variants of OXA48-like carbapenemases. OXA48-like carbapenemases are also known to be carried on transposons such as Tn 1999 , Tn 1999.2 and it is also associated with IS1R carried on Tn 1999 . In India, there are no previous reports studying the association of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) with OXA48-like carbapenemases. The present study was aimed at determining the genetic backbone of OXA48-like carbapenemases to determine the role of MGEs in its transfer and to investigate the Inc plasmid type carrying bla OXA48-like . Results A total of 49 carbapenem resistant K. pneumoniae which included 25 isolates from South India and 24 isolates from North India, were included in the study. Whole genome sequencing using Ion Torrent PGM was performed to study the isolates. OXA-232 was present in 35 isolates (71%). In 19 isolates (39%), bla OXA48-like was associated with MGEs. Insertion sequences such as ISX4, IS1, IS3, IS Kpn 1, IS Kpn 26, IS Kpn 25, IS Spu 2, IS Kox 1, IS 4321R , IS Ec 36, and IS Pa 38; and transposons such as TnAs3 and Tn2, were present. Isolates from northern and southern India belonging to same sequence type (ST) had diverse genetic backbone for bla OXA48-like . ST14 isolates from north had IS5 and Tn3 families while from south they had IS1, IS5 and IS630 families. ST231 from north had IS5, IS6 and Tn3 families with bla OXA-232 while from south, IS1, IS3 and IS5 families were observed; with IS Kpn 26 being present among isolates from both the regions. bla OXA48-like was predominantly found on ColKP3 plasmid. ST231 was the predominant ST in 22 isolates (45%). Conclusion OXA-232 is the predominant variant of OXA48-like carbapenemase with ST231 being the commonest ST of OXA48-like carbapenemase producing K. pneumoniae in India. Diverse MGEs have been associated with both bla OXA-232 and bla OXA-181 which contribute to their spread. The MGEs in the present study are different from those reported earlier. There is no clonal expansion of bla OXA48-like producing K. pneumoniae since diverse STs were observed. Monitoring the genetic backbone of OXA48-like carbapenemas...
IntroductionAcinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic pathogen responsible for causing nosocomial infections. Carbapenems are considered to be the drug of choice to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant A. baumannii. The prevalent mechanism of carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii is enzymatic degradation by β-lactamases. Therefore, the aim of the study is to determine the prevalence and distribution of molecular determinants among the clinical isolates of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii.MethodsA total of 103 consecutive, non-duplicate carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolated from blood and endotracheal aspirates (ETAs) were included in the study. The CarbAcineto NP test was performed for the screening of carbapenemase production. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) and oxacillinases (OXAs). PCR was done for the detection of ISAba1 elements, and mapping PCR was performed to identify the position of ISAba1 with respect to the OXA-23-like gene.ResultsAmong the 103 A. baumannii isolates, 94 were phenotypically identified as carbapenemase producers. blaPER was the most common among the ESBLs. Among MBLs, blaNDM was predominant followed by the blaVIM gene. blaOXA-51 and blaOXA-23 were the most common and present in all 103 isolates. Almost 80% of the isolates had ISAba1 upstream blaOXA-23 gene.ConclusionThe blaOXA-23 and blaNDM genes are the most common type of oxacillinases and metallo β-lactamases, respectively, and contribute to carbapenem resistance in clinical isolates of A. baumannii. The presence of ISAba1 upstream of the blaOXA-23 gene suggests that the insertion element acts as a promoter for its increased expression.FundingIndian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India (ref. no. AMR/TF/54/13ECDHII dated 23 October 2013).
Shigellosis represents a major burden of disease in developing countries. A low infectious dose allows the disease to be spread effectively. Although shigellosis is mostly a self‐limiting disease, antibiotics are recommended to reduce deaths, disease symptoms and organism‐shedding time. However, in India, antimicrobial resistance among the genus Shigella is more common than among any other enteric bacteria. Notably, new serotypes or subserotypes in Shigella are reported from various parts of the world. Identification of new subserotypes of Shigella spp. is becoming a major issue as these strains are nontypeable by conventional serotyping. The commercially available antisera may not cover all possible epitopes of the O lipopolysaccharide antigen of Shigella serotypes. Therefore, molecular methods which most closely approach the resolution of full serotyping are necessary to identify such strains. In addition, the knowledge of a prevalent serotype in various geographic regions may assist in formulating strategies such as the development of a vaccine to prevent infection especially when the immunity to disease is serotype specific, and to understand the disease burden caused by new Shigella serotypes.
Carbapenem-resistant organisms are increasingly common worldwide, particularly in India and are associated with high mortality rates especially in patients with severe infection such as bacteremia. Existing drugs such as carbapenems and polymyxins have a number of disadvantages, but remain the mainstay of treatment. The tetracycline class of antibiotics was first produced in the 1940s. Minocycline, tetracycline derivative, although licensed for treatment of wide range of infections, has not been considered for treatment of multidrug-resistant organisms until recently and needs further in vivo studies. Tigecycline, a derivative of minocycline, although with certain disadvantages, has been frequently used in the treatment of carbapenem-resistant organisms. In this article, we review the properties of minocycline and tigecycline, the common mechanisms of resistance, and assess their role in the management of carbapenem-resistant organisms.
Objectives. Otomycosis is a common ENT disease frequenting the tropics. Its recurrent nature poses a great challenge to the treating physician. In spite of a number of antifungals in the market, the frequent nature of this disease warrants repeated use of these drugs, contributing to drug resistance and financial burden on the rural population. Our primary aims were to evaluate the effectiveness of povidone iodine in the treatment of otomycosis and to identify the most common fungal isolate in our population. Study Design and Setting. A single blinded prospective longitudinal study was done over a period of 12 months in a tertiary referral center. 34 patients in the age group 15–70 years clinically diagnosed with otomycosis were included in this study. These individuals were divided into two groups selected randomly. One arm received 7.5% povidone iodine otic drops and the other 1% Clotrimazole and lignocaine drops. Evaluation was based on resolution of symptoms and signs after treatment. Result. Both arms showed improvements which were comparable thus suggesting the role of povidone iodine in the management of otomycosis. Conclusion. Povidone iodine is an effective antifungal in the treatment of otomycosis.
Carbapenemase producing Gram-negative pathogen is of great concern for physician. The challenging aspects are treatment option and infection control. Monitoring of respective carbapenemase resistance mechanism is necessary to prevent the outbreaks. Currently, the rapid emergence of oxacillinase (OXA-48) like is alarming. Increasing frequency of OXA-48 is seen than the classical carbapenemase (KPC, NDM, IMP, and VIM) across the world. The blaOXA-48 gene is commonly identified in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The transferrable plasmid of OXA-48 is associated with rapid spread and inter-species dissemination. In general, OXA-48-like enzymes weakly hydrolyzes both carbapenem and broad spectrum cephalosporins. Except OXA-163, which effectively hydrolyze cephalosporin. This poor hydrolytic profile obscures the detection of OXA-48-like. It may go undetected in routine diagnosis and complicates the treatment option. Co-production of OXA-48-like with CTX-M-15 and other carbapenemase (NDM, VIM) leads to the emergence of multidrug resistant strains.
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