Genetic diversity and structure of batata-da-serra populations (Ipomoea serrana Sim.-Bianch. & L.V. Vasconcelos) from Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, using ISSR markers batata-da-serra, Ipomoea serrana Sim.-Bianchi. & L.V. Vasconcelos, is an endemic liana from the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, whose tuberous roots have been consumed by human populations for many years. Although the species, classified as vulnerable by the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature), is subject to anthropic pressure due to the exploration of tuberous roots for food consumption, few studies have been conducted on the species, which is why it is of great importance to know the diversity and genetic structure of the species. Studies on genetic diversity and structure with molecular markers are important for providing data on the impacts of anthropogenic exploitation and can be useful for the species management and conservation. Five populations of Chapada Diamantina, consisting a total of 142 individuals were studied with four ISSR primers, resulting in 34 bands, 25 of which were polymorphic. The genetic diversity analysis showed that populations have a moderate variability, with 73.8% of polymorphic bands, Nei's unbiased gene diversity (He) was 0.264; Shannon diversity index (I ) was 0.389, average values. Most of the variation was within populations (77%), as estimated by the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), whereas the variation between populations was 23% of the total, which corroborated the results of program Structure, principal co-ordinate analysis (PcoA) and cluster analyses, using the Neighbor-Joining method, and the dissimilarity coefficient of Jaccard. The Bayesian analysis separated the individuals into four groups, with populations Andaraí and Capão allocated into different groups, while the other three populations shared individuals in two other groups. Considering the pioneering characteristic of this study at the molecular level, it represents the first step towards the knowledge on the genetic diversity of the species. Future studies will increase the knowledge on the genetics of the species and may provide subsidy for the development of a management plan for a species that has been explored in the region.