2013
DOI: 10.1590/1516-4446-2012-1052 View full text |Buy / Rent full text
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Abstract: Objective: Atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) promote obesity and insulin resistance. In this regard, the main objective of this study was to present potential mechanisms and evidence concerning side effects of atypical antipsychotics in humans and rodents. Method: A systematic review of the literature was performed using the MEDLINE database. We checked the references of selected articles, review articles, and books on the subject. Results: This review provides consistent results concerning the side effects of ol… Show more

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“…Therapeutic use of atypical antipsychotics has been associated with metabolic changes that may increase cardiovascular or cerebrovascular risk (including hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and weight gain). Although all atypical antipsychotics may produce some metabolic changes, each drug has its own specific risk profile (Newcomer, 2007;Volpato et al, 2013).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
“…Greater leptin elevation with olanzapine, clozapine, and quetiapine can be explained by the higher affinity of these drugs for muscarinic M3 receptors, which are known to be the underlying source of large differences concerning weight gain and other side effects [72]. Indeed, SGA-induced weight gain could be due to the stimulation of muscarinic M3 receptors as well as of 5-HT1a, 5-HT6, and adrenergic α2 receptors, and also the blockade of serotonin 5-HT2c and 5-HT1b, adrenergic α1, dopamine D2 and histamine H1 receptors [14,75,76]. The inhibitory effect on hypothalamic H1Rs includes activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a well-known feeding regulator [22][23][24]76].…”
Section: Leptin and Antipsychotics-induced Weight Gainmentioning
“…Indeed, SGA-induced weight gain could be due to the stimulation of muscarinic M3 receptors as well as of 5-HT1a, 5-HT6, and adrenergic α2 receptors, and also the blockade of serotonin 5-HT2c and 5-HT1b, adrenergic α1, dopamine D2 and histamine H1 receptors [14,75,76]. The inhibitory effect on hypothalamic H1Rs includes activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a well-known feeding regulator [22][23][24]76]. Noteworthy, suppressing effect on dopamine D 2 receptors with and impact on reward processing and physical activity is also the mechanism by which FGAs can induce weight gain [4,10].…”
Section: Leptin and Antipsychotics-induced Weight Gainmentioning
“…Although, there are several studies describing the effects of antipsychotics on bone [3840] and metabolic parameters [4143] in animals, there is a lack of investigations concerning effects of antipsychotics on these parameters in experimental animal model of SCH. Since our recent investigation has revealed reduced bone mass in male rats in PCP animal model of SCH and protective effect of atypical antipsychotic risperidone [44], the aim of this study was to assess the effects of chronic haloperidol (belonging to PR antipsychotics) and clozapine (belonging to PS antipsychotics) treatment on bone mass, body composition, corticosterone, IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations and metabolic parameters in male and female rats perinatally treated with PCP.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…em pacientes que recebem tais fármacos(Ballon et al, 2014;Milano et al, 2013;Reynolds & Kirk, 2010).A olanzapina e clozapina, antipsicóticos que tem maior efeito sobre o ganho de peso, também tem maior associação com a diminuição da regulação da glicose(Reynolds & Kirk, 2010). Tais fármacos são caracterizados por uma maior afinidade para os receptores H1, 5-HT2C e M3(Milano et al, 2013;Volpato et al, 2013).Volpato e colaboradores (2013) sugerem o papel dos receptores M3 na fisiopatologia da resistência à insulina, indicando tais receptores como o melhor preditor de diabetes induzido por antipsicóticos. Vale lembrar a existência da alteração reversível da glicemia, ocorrendo muitas vezes de forma aguda, independente da Entretanto, o fato de não haver nenhuma sequência de supressão de ingestão de alimentos, o que é uma resposta normal a leptina elevada, indica que o mecanismo de sinalização de leptina no hipotálamo pode ser rompida através da ação Milano et al, 2013).…”
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