Nest predation is assumed to be an important factor driving avian life histories. Altitudinal gradients offer valuable study systems to investigate how avian nest predation risk varies between bird populations. In this study, a hypothesis postulating an increase in avian nest survival rate with elevation as a result of decreasing predation pressure was experimentally tested along an altitudinal gradient (300-2250 m) in West-Central Africa. Three types of artificial nests (cup-shrub, cup-ground and bare-ground) were used along the altitudinal gradient. Overall, elevation had no effect on the daily survival rate (DSR) of the artificial nests. However, there was a significant elevation-nest type interaction. Daily survival rate for cup-shrub nests decreased significantly with elevation, but for cup-ground and bareground nests, elevation had no significant effect. We tested the effects of the same vegetation parameters (tree density, herb and shrub layer coverage, and canopy openness) on the DSR of different nest types to understand how different vegetation layers or combinations of them affect DSR. Daily survival rate for bare-ground nests significantly decreased with increasing canopy openness, and was positively influenced by coverage of herb layer and tree density. For cup-shrub nests, DSR increased significantly with increasing shrub layer coverage. Finally, for cup-ground nests, we found a positive effect of shrub coverage and canopy openness on DSR. In summary, we found that different forest vegetation layers affect predation risk of different nest types along elevations on Mt. Cameroon.Abstract in French is available with online material.