Effective host defense requires a robust, yet self-limited response to pathogens. A poorly calibrated response can lead to either bacterial dissemination due to insufficient inflammation or to organ injury due to excessive inflammation. Recent evidence suggests that the cholinergic anti-inflammatory reflex helps calibrate the immune response. However, the influence of peripheral noradrenergic neurons, which are primarily sympathetic neurons, in regulating immunity remains incompletely characterized. Using a m…
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