2010
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-11470-0_2
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Abstract: The properties of systems near quantum critical points (QCPs) have been studied extensively in recent years [1,2]. A QCP is a point across which the symmetry of the ground state of a quantum system changes in a fundamental way; such a point can be accessed by changing some parameter, say λ , in the Hamiltonian governing the system. The change in the ground state across a QCP is mediated by quantum fluctuations. Unlike conventional thermal critical points, thermal fluctuations do not play a crucial role in suc…

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