Introduction: Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis (HD) are at high risk of viral hepatitis due to blood transfusion, prolonged vascular access, exposure to infected patients and contaminated equipments etc. Knowledge of the prevalence of such infections is very important to access magnitude of the problem because these infections play important role in the morbidity and mortality of hemodialysis (HD) patients. Aim and Objectives: This study was done to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in patients on hemodialysis at our tertiary care hospital of Western Maharashtra. Materials and Methods: Settings and Design: Hospital based cross sectional study was conducted for six months in HD unit at our tertiary care hospital. All patients (n=135) were screened for Hepatitis B surface antigen and antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV). Prevalence, age and sex wise distribution as well as risk factors for transmission of these infections were observed. Results: Total 135 HD patients were screened for presence of HBV and HCV infections. Of these, 39 (28.9%), 20 (14.8%), 6 (4.4%) were found to be having HCV, HBV and Dual HBV and HCV infection respectively. Conclusions: HCV was the most prevalent among HD patients than HBV. History of multiple blood transfusions, HD outside center or longer duration of HD were all important risk factor noted for high prevalence of sero-positivity for HBV and/or HCV. Strict adherence to universal precautions careful attention to hygiene and strict sterilization of dialysis machines are important to prevent further transmission of these viruses.