2021
DOI: 10.1086/711596
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Laying the Corpses to Rest: Grain, Embargoes, andYersinia pestisin the Black Sea, 1346–48

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Cited by 41 publications
(31 citation statements)
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“…The onset of the Black Death has been conventionally associated with outbreaks that occurred around the Black Sea region in 1346 (refs. 1 , 47 ), eight years after the Kara-Djigach epidemic. At present, the exact means through which Y. pestis reached western Eurasia are unknown, primarily due to large pre-existing uncertainties around the historical and ecological contexts of this process.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…The onset of the Black Death has been conventionally associated with outbreaks that occurred around the Black Sea region in 1346 (refs. 1 , 47 ), eight years after the Kara-Djigach epidemic. At present, the exact means through which Y. pestis reached western Eurasia are unknown, primarily due to large pre-existing uncertainties around the historical and ecological contexts of this process.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…In recent years, paleogeneticists have con rmed the pandemic's Y. pestis identity and established that the outbreak seeded novel plague reservoirs in Europe 5,6 . Archeologists and historians meanwhile have begun to put Sub-Saharan Africa on the Black Death map 9 , to ll in lacunae in our understanding of the pandemic's Mediterranean and European spread 10,11 , and to explore the pandemic's origins in Central Asia and dissemination in East Asia, drawing on evolutionary biology and paleogenetics 12 . But while multiple disciplines have reassessed the pandemic's spatiotemporality, the mortality of the outbreak, estimates of which have drawn attention to the Black Death for centuries, remains underexplored and limited to unidisciplinary, written-source-based approaches.…”
Section: Estimating Black Death Mortalitymentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Cereal trade is thought to have been instrumental for the introduction of the Black Death to Mediterranean Europe, and along established conduits of commerce and communication, ecological factors, associated contingency effects and historical path dependency mattered from the outset. Before the pandemic arrived in the Crimea, the volume of cereal trade between Italy and the Black Sea was sizeable, yet blocked by embargo 11,36,37 . High demand in Southern Europe for Black Sea cereals from 1345 onwards was associated with a period of excessive precipitation and cooling 38,39 negatively affecting cereal supplies in Italy and beyond, 1345-47 8,36,40,41 .…”
Section: Landscape and Demographic Change: Four Major Scenariosmentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…The dissemination of historical plague across the globe is being studied and discussed since many decades. The second pandemic entered Europe in 1347 [1], but it may have started a century earlier in Central Asia and China [2]. The pandemic caused millions of casualties before gradually disappearing from Europe and the Mediterranean in the 18 th century.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%