2014
DOI: 10.1039/c3an01985c
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Forensic electrochemistry: the electroanalytical sensing of synthetic cathinone-derivatives and their accompanying adulterants in “legal high” products

Abstract: The production and abuse of new psychoactive substances, known as "legal highs" which mimic traditional drugs of abuse is becoming a global epidemic. Traditional analytical methodologies exist which can provide confirmatory analysis but there is a requirement for an on-the-spot analytical screening tool that could be used to determine whether a substance, or sample matrix contains such legal, or formally "legal highs". In this paper the electrochemical sensing of (±)-methcathinone and related compounds at a ra… Show more

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Cited by 74 publications
(82 citation statements)
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“…According to the UNODC, gas chromatography -mass spectrometry (electron ionisation) (GC-MS (EI)) was the predominant analytical technique employed by EU countries for chemical analysis of NPS mixtures. [1] For example, this technique has been shown to successfully discriminate between NPS classes [14][15][16][17] as well as within classes such as cathinones, [18] aminoindanes [19,20] and benzylpiperazines. [21] In circumstances where no reference standards or data were available, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) has been used to determine the chemical connectivity of NPS such as cathinones [22] and aminoindanes.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
See 1 more Smart Citation
“…According to the UNODC, gas chromatography -mass spectrometry (electron ionisation) (GC-MS (EI)) was the predominant analytical technique employed by EU countries for chemical analysis of NPS mixtures. [1] For example, this technique has been shown to successfully discriminate between NPS classes [14][15][16][17] as well as within classes such as cathinones, [18] aminoindanes [19,20] and benzylpiperazines. [21] In circumstances where no reference standards or data were available, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) has been used to determine the chemical connectivity of NPS such as cathinones [22] and aminoindanes.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…[21] In circumstances where no reference standards or data were available, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) has been used to determine the chemical connectivity of NPS such as cathinones [22] and aminoindanes. [19,20] High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used with various detectors to separate compounds between NPS classes [16] as well as within classes of cathinones [23] and cannabinoids. [24] In general, the techniques mentioned above require transport to a forensic laboratory and solvent dissolution/filtering before analysis.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…46 Solid synthetic cathinone samples (2-FMC, 2-MEC, 2-FEC and 2-EEC) were sampled directly without pre-treatment and positive ion mass spectra were acquired using a DART-SVP™ ion source interfaced to an AccuTOF mass spectrometer. 48,49 Smith et al 50,51 provided an alternative to chromatography and proposed a novel sensing protocol based upon the electrochemical methods. 47 The authors scope for this work is to provide a rapid screening method to quickly respond to the rapid evolution of designer drugs and the consequent testing backlogs that develop.…”
Section: Usual Namesmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Previous work on the development of robust electrochemical methods for the sensing of the synthetic cathinones, either in their pure form 10 or in the presence of common adulterants 11 have the potential as rapid, simple and cost-effective † Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. Previous work on the development of robust electrochemical methods for the sensing of the synthetic cathinones, either in their pure form 10 or in the presence of common adulterants 11 have the potential as rapid, simple and cost-effective † Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%