This study aims at genetic characterization and phylogenetic relationships of Nocardia brasiliensis focusing by using housekeeping rrs, hsp65, and sodA genes. N. brasiliensis is the species responsible for 80% of cases of actinomycetoma, one form of cutaneous nocardiosis which occurs mainly in tropical regions reaching immunocompetent patients in which the disease can lead to amputation. We analyze 36 indigenous cases of N. brasiliensis that happened in France. Phylogenetic analysis targeting rrs gene showed no robustness at phylogenetic nodes level. However, the use of a concatenation of hsp65 and sodA genes showed that the tested strains surprisingly ranked in 3 well-defined genotypes. Genotypes 2 and 3 were phylogenetically closer to each other and both diverged from genotype 1 sustained by a high bootstrap of 81%. This last genotype hosts all the cases of pulmonary forms (3), the sole cerebral form, and almost all the cases of immunocompromised patients (3 out of 4). Moreover, excepting one of them, all the strains belonging to this group present a susceptibility to imipenem which is not the case in the other genotypes that rarely count among them strains being susceptible to this drug. The haplotype diversity (Hd) of hsp65 (0.927) and sodA (0.885) genes was higher than that of rrs (0.824). For this gene, we obtained 16 polymorphic sites whereas, for hsp65 and sodA genes, up to 27 and 29 were identified, respectively. This study reveals that these two genes have an important genetic discriminatory power for the evaluation of the intraspecies genetic variability of N. brasiliensis and they may be useful for identification purposes at species level. This study also reveals the possible existence of a new species harbored by genotype 1.