2020
DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.01755
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Abstract: Increasing antibiotic resistance in bacteria causing endogenous infections has entailed a need for innovative approaches to therapy and prophylaxis of these infections and raised a new interest in vaccines for prevention of colonization and infection by typically antibiotic resistant pathogens. Nevertheless, there has been a long history of failures in late stage clinical development of this type of vaccines, which remains not fully understood. This article provides an overview on present and past vaccine deve… Show more

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Cited by 9 publications
(4 citation statements)
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References 139 publications
(157 reference statements)
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“…Immunization by vaccine remains the most effective method to provide protection against infectious diseases [197]. However, clinical applicability of many new potential vaccine candidates is limited due to low immunogenicity and inability to stimulate an effective long-lasting immunity [198,199]. In particular, subunit vaccines are less immunogenic and often fail to evoke desirable immune reactions.…”
Section: Nanomaterial-based Vaccinesmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Antimicrobial resistance is recognized as one of the greatest threats to human health ( World Health Organization [WHO], 2017 ; Morehead and Scarbrough, 2018 ; Murray et al, 2022 ). Thus, new antimicrobial therapies are urgently needed, although few are currently being developed ( Hughes and Karlén, 2014 ; Bekeredjian-Ding, 2020 ; Theuretzbacher et al, 2020 ). Due to numerous challenges, including long research timelines and limited financial reward, most large pharmaceutical companies are no longer investing in research and development of new antibiotics.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Hence, there is a need for the accelerated development of new agents to treat and prevent infections caused by AMR pathogens ( WHO, 2021 ). Despite increasing interest in the development of new or alternative therapies, there is a high attrition rate, and new therapies that often fail to reach the market ( Hughes and Karlén, 2014 ; Bekeredjian-Ding, 2020 ).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Active immunization is considered as a very effective approach to prevent infectious diseases 15 . For instance, highly effective vaccines have been used over many years to protect humans against infections by Streptococcus pneumoniae 16 .…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%