This paper corresponds to the solution of some problems realized during ragweed identification experiments, namely the samples collected on the field by botanical experts did not match the initial conditions expected. Reflections and shadows appeared on the image, which made the segmentation more difficult, therefore also the classification was not efficient in previous study. In this work, unlike those solutions, which try to remove the shadow by restoring the illumination of image parts, the focus is on separating leaf and background points based on chromatic information, basically by examining the histograms of the full image and the border. This proposed solution filters these noises in the subspaces of hue, saturation and value space and their combination. It also describes a qualitative technique to select the appropriate values from the filtered outputs. With this method, the results of segmentation improved a lot.
Due to negative environmental impacts caused by the building industry, sustainable buildings have recently become one of the most investigated fields in research. As the design technique itself is mainly responsible for building performance, building energy design optimization is of particular interest. Several studies concentrate on systems, operation, and control optimization, complemented by passive strategies, specifically related to the envelope. In building physics, different architectural considerations, in particular, the building’s shape, are essential variables, as they greatly influence the performance of a building. Most scientific work that takes into consideration building geometry explores spaces without any energy optimization or calculates optimization processes of a few basic variables of simplified space geometries. Review studies mainly discuss the historic development of optimization algorithms, building domains, and the algorithm-system and software framework performance with coupling issues. By providing a systemized clustering of different levels of shape integration intensities, space creation principals, and algorithms, this review explores the current status of sustainability related shape optimization. The review proves that geometry design variable modifications and, specifically, shape generation techniques offer promising optimization potential; however, the findings also indicate that building shape optimization is still in its infancy.
Numerous office building design optimizations are in international research to reduce energy consumption, optimize costs and provide optimal comfort. However, there is a lack of knowledge on the effects of geometry and space organization. This study deals with space organization problems and searches for all possible optimal building space structure configurations in terms of energy and comfort parameters using a mathematical algorithmic method. The methodology is based on the formulation of feasible architectural rules and their translation into an algorithm that can generate 2D floor plans satisfying all boundary conditions. In the framework of an exemplary modeling procedure, a 4-story office building geometry generation was carried out, resulting in 17-floor plan versions and 7 different building geometries. The resulting building shapes were classified by energy-related geometry parameters (envelope surface/useful area) for the future step of the research, where the cases will be compared with the help of building simulations. With the help of the method, it was possible to significantly narrow the search space, but future improvements are needed for faster work for wider applicability.
In this paper a novel method to extend the problem range of CPM problems is given. First, the CPM problem is transformed into a process network problem. It is shown how the directed bipartite process network has to be generated, and the corresponding mathematical programming model should be formulated. Time optimal, cost optimal, time optimal with additional cost constraints and cost optimal with additional time constraints mathematical programming models are given. Moreover, it is illustrated how alternative cases may appear in the structure. An example illustrates the efficiency of the present work.
The building industry is responsible for a significant degree of energy consumption in the world, causing negative climate changes and energy supply uncertainties due to low energy efficiency as well as the high resource demand of construction. Consequently, energy design optimization has become an important research field. Passive design strategies are one of the most definitive factors concerning energy-related building development. The given architectural problem calls for a method that can create all potentially feasible building geometries, thus guaranteeing the optimal solution which is addressed in the current paper. To reach this requirement, the necessity of a modular space arrangement system and architectural selection rules were determined, focusing on the relationship between the rules and the generation of geometries with mathematical rigor. Next, the architecture-based congruency analysis performed, further reduced the number of simulation cases. With the simulations, it is illustrated how the building shape versions affect the heating energy demands: the performance of the configurations themselves. Results clearly illustrate the importance of the synthesis step of the architectural design.
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