IL-1β is an important inflammatory mediator of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here we show that oligomers of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), a protein that forms amyloid deposits in the pancreas during T2D, trigger the Nlrp3 inflammasome and generate mature interleukin (IL)-1β. A T2D therapy, glyburide, suppresses IAPP-mediated IL-1β production in vitro. Processing of IL-1β initiated by IAPP first requires priming, a process that involves glucose metabolism and can be facilitated by minimally oxidized low density lipoprotein. Finally, mice transgenic for human IAPP have increased IL-1β in pancreatic islets, which colocalizes with amyloid and macrophages. Our findings reveal novel mechanisms in the pathogenesis of T2D and treatment of pathology caused by IAPP.
The ability to design unconfounded experiments and make valid inferences from their outcomes is an essential skill in scientific reasoning. The present study addressed an important issue in scientific reasoning and cognitive development: how children acquire a domain-general processing strategy (Control of Variables Strategy or CVS) and generalize it across various contexts. Seven-to 10-year-olds ( N ϭ 87) designed and evaluated experiments and made inferences from the experimental outcomes. When provided with explicit training within domains, combined with probe questions, children were able to learn and transfer the basic strategy for designing unconfounded experiments. Providing probes without direct instruction, however, did not improve children's ability to design unconfounded experiments and make valid inferences. Direct instruction on CVS not only improved the use of CVS, but also facilitated conceptual change in the domain because the application of CVS led to unconfounded, informative tests of domain-specific concepts. With age, children increasingly improved their ability to transfer learned strategies to remote situations. A trial-by-trial assessment of children's strategy use also allowed the examination of the source, rate, path, and breadth of strategy change.
Background A vaccine against COVID-19 is urgently needed for older adults, in whom morbidity and mortality due to the disease are increased. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a candidate COVID-19 vaccine, CoronaVac, containing inactivated SARS-CoV-2, in adults aged 60 years and older. Methods We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1/2 clinical trial of CoronaVac in healthy adults aged 60 years and older in Renqiu (Hebei, China). Vaccine or placebo was given by intramuscular injection in two doses (days 0 and 28). Phase 1 comprised a dose-escalation study, in which participants were allocated to two blocks: block 1 (3 μg inactivated virus in 0•5 mL of aluminium hydroxide solution per injection) and block 2 (6 μg per injection). Within each block, participants were randomly assigned (2:1) using block randomisation to receive CoronaVac or placebo (aluminium hydroxide solution only). In phase 2, participants were randomly assigned (2:2:2:1) using block randomisation to receive either CoronaVac at 1•5 μg, 3 µg, or 6 µg per dose, or placebo. All participants, investigators, and laboratory staff were masked to treatment allocation. The primary safety endpoint was adverse reactions within 28 days after each injection in all participants who received at least one dose. The primary immunogenicity endpoint was seroconversion rate at 28 days after the second injection (which was assessed in all participants who had received the two doses of vaccine according to their random assignment, had antibody results available, and did not violate the trial protocol). Seroconversion was defined as a change from seronegative at baseline to seropositive for neutralising antibodies to live SARS-CoV-2 (positive cutoff titre 1/8), or a four-fold titre increase if the participant was seropositive at baseline. This study is ongoing and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04383574). Findings Between May 22 and June 1, 2020, 72 participants (24 in each intervention group and 24 in the placebo group; mean age 65•8 years [SD 4•8]) were enrolled in phase 1, and between June 12 and June 15, 2020, 350 participants were enrolled in phase 2 (100 in each intervention group and 50 in the placebo group; mean age 66•6 years [SD 4•7] in 349 participants). In the safety populations from both phases, any adverse reaction within 28 days after injection occurred in 20 (20%) of 100 participants in the 1•5 μg group, 25 (20%) of 125 in the 3 μg group, 27 (22%) of 123 in the 6 μg group, and 15 (21%) of 73 in the placebo group. All adverse reactions were mild or moderate in severity and injection site pain (39 [9%] of 421 participants) was the most frequently reported event. As of Aug 28, 2020, eight serious adverse events, considered unrelated to vaccination, have been reported by seven (2%) participants. In phase 1, seroconversion after the second dose was observed in 24 of 24 participants (100•0% [95% CI 85•8-100•0]) in the 3 μg group and 22 of 23 (95•7% [78•1-99•9]) in the 6 μg group. In phase 2, sero...
As an economic crop, pepper satisfies people's spicy taste and has medicinal uses worldwide. To gain a better understanding of Capsicum evolution, domestication, and specialization, we present here the genome sequence of the cultivated pepper Zunla-1 (C. annuum L.) and its wild progenitor Chiltepin (C. annuum var. glabriusculum). We estimate that the pepper genome expanded ∼0.3 Mya (with respect to the genome of other Solanaceae) by a rapid amplification of retrotransposons elements, resulting in a genome comprised of ∼81% repetitive sequences. Approximately 79% of 3.48-Gb scaffolds containing 34,476 protein-coding genes were anchored to chromosomes by a high-density genetic map. Comparison of cultivated and wild pepper genomes with 20 resequencing accessions revealed molecular footprints of artificial selection, providing us with a list of candidate domestication genes. We also found that dosage compensation effect of tandem duplication genes probably contributed to the pungent diversification in pepper. The Capsicum reference genome provides crucial information for the study of not only the evolution of the pepper genome but also, the Solanaceae family, and it will facilitate the establishment of more effective pepper breeding programs.de novo genome sequence | genome expansion | Solanaceae evolution
Presently the major energy requirements are catered by using conventional sources out of which coal based thermal generation is having major contribution. Considering the rate at which conventional sources are being consumed and their impact on environments it is necessary to adopt alternate energy technologies for sustainable development. Out of various renewable energy sources, wind generation is most cost effective in addition to its various advantages. Worldwide the share of wind generation connected to grid is increasing at faster rate and in near future will become one of the major sources of renewable energy. With rapid development of wind power technologies and significant growth of wind power capacity installed worldwide, various wind turbine concepts have been developed. Considering the increasing share of wind generation interfaced to grid it is necessary to study the power quality and reactive power issues considering voltage quality and stability issues. In case of Induction type wind energy converter reactive power management in cost effective way is essential. In many wind farm wind energy converter using Synchronous generator and Induction generator are used. Use of Synchronous generator leads to distortion of wave shape and are sensitive to grid disturbances. Considering the challenges to be faced related to interfacing of large wind farms using Induction and Synchronous generators, it is necessary to study the different wind generator systems and their comparisons. The wind energy conversion system is demanded to be more costcompetitive, so that comparisons of different wind generator systems are necessary. An overview of different wind generator systems and their comparisons are presented. Also Critical Power Quality issues & Problems related with Grid connections are also discussed.
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