Background: Undernutrition among school age children has an impact on their health, cognition, and educational achievement. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of stunting and wasting among school age children in Gondar town, northwest, Ethiopia. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was done among school children aged 6-14 years. Data on socio-demographic, nutritional and dietary status of children were collected using structured questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were carried out to determine the status of stunting and wasting. Data were entered into Epi-Info version 3.5.3 and transferred to SPSS version 20 for further analysis. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to identify associated factors of stunting and wasting. Both crude odds and adjusted odds ratios with 95% CI were used to measure the strength of associations. In the multivariable analysis, variables with < 0.05 p-values were considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 523 school age children were with the median age of 12 (10-13 inter quartile range) years participated in the study. The overall prevalence of stunting and wasting among primary school children was 241(46.1%; 95% CI: 42.3, 50.3) and 47 (9%; 95% CI: 6.7, 11.7), respectively. Child age (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.29, 2.80), public tab/yard water source (AOR = 2.22; 95%CI: 1.46, 3.39), DDS < 4 (AOR = 1.89 95%CI: 1.08, 3.30), tea drinking habit (AOR = 0.46, 95%CI: 0.27, 0.80) and anemia (AOR = 1.72 95%CI: 1.05, 2.83) were significant predictors of stunting. Moreover, child age (AOR = 3.91; 95% CI: 1.62, 9.44), maternal/care-givers' age ≤ 34 (AOR = 0.34; 95%CI: 0.16, 0.71), maternal education (AOR = 2.55; 95%CI: 1.15, 5.65), family poverty (AOR = 3.23; 95% CI: 1.30, 7.93) and alcohol consumption (AOR = 2.93; 95%CI: 1.16, 7.42) were found significantly associated with wasting. Conclusion: Stunting and wasting were then major problems among school age children. Child age, water source for dinking, DDS < 4 and anemia resulted in stunting. On the other hand, child age, maternal education and age, family poverty and alcohol drinking were risk factors for wasting. Therefore, launching community based nutritional education programs, implementing school feeding and strengthening economic level of the communities are essential to reduce the problems.
BackgroundAnemia is a global public health problem affecting 305 million school children (SC) worldwide. It has deleterious effects in SC, including lower school achievement due to impaired cognitive development and physical growth, fatigue and poor attention span, and increased morbidity because of reduced resistance to infection. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of anemia among SC attending public primary schools in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia.MethodsA school-based cross sectional study was conducted on a total of 523 SC aged from 6–14 years old. Multi-stage sampling followed by systematic random sampling techniques were employed to select study participants. Data on socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics, and dietary status of children were collected using pre-tested structured questionnaire through face-to-face interview of children’s caregivers. Anthropometric measurements were taken. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was determined by using HemoCue 301+analyser. Stool and blood samples were collected in the school premises, and examined for intestinal and hemoparasites, respectively. Data were entered into Epi Info version 3.5.3 and transferred to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regression models were fitted to identify associated factors of anemia. P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.ResultOf the total SC participated in the study, 269 (51.4%) were males. The median (inter quartile range (IQR)) age was 12 (10–13) years, and 332 (63.5%) of them were in the age group 11–14 years. About 81 (15.5%; 95%CI: 12.4%, 18.7%) of them were anemic: 56 (69.1%) and 25 (38.9%) of them were mildly and moderately anemic, respectively. Low maternal education (AOR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.11, 4.78), stunting (AOR = 2.22; 95%CI: 1.30, 3.80), severe food insecurity (AOR = 5.11; 95%CI: 1.53, 17.13), and soil-transmitted helminthic (STH) infection (AOR = 7.13; 95%CI: 3.16, 16.86) were found significantly associated with anemia.ConclusionAnemia among SC was found to be a mild public health problem. It was strongly associated with low maternal education, food insecurity, stunting and intestinal helminthic infection. Focused policies and strategies towards the above factors should be designed to reduce anemia among SC.
Background In Ethiopian, the prevalence of anemia among preschool aged children widely varied across regions. Since anemia adversely affects the cognitive and physical development of the children, it is important to determine its burden for implementing appropriate measurements. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining the anemia prevalence and associated factors among preschool aged children. Method A community based cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 432 preschool children in Menz Gera Midir district from January to May, 2017. A multi stage sampling procedure was applied to select the target groups. Hemocue analyzer for Haemoglobin determination; anthropometric measurements for assessment nutritional status, structured questionnaires for socio-demographic and economic variables were used for data collection. The morphological appearance of red blood cell was assessed microscopically to determine type of anemia. Descriptive statistics were employed to summarize the data and binary logistic regression was used for inferential statistics. A p value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Result The overall prevalence of anemia was 123 (28.5%); of which 38 (30.9%) and 85 (69.1%) were moderate and mild, respectively. Morphologically about 50.4, 37.4 and 12.2% were microcytic hypochromic, normocytic normochromic and macrocytic anemias, respectively. Child age 6-11 months (COR: 5.67, 95% CI: 2.2, 14.86), child age 12–23 months (COR: 5.8, 95% CI: 2.3, 14.7), wasting (COR: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.2, 9.8), stunting (COR: 3.8, 95% CI: 1.92, 7.77), underweight (COR: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.07, 4.38), MUAC measurement below 13 cm (COR: 5.6, 95% CI: 2.83, 11.15), household headed by female (COR: 3.24, 95% CI: 1.1, 9.63), maternal anemia (COR: 4, 95% CI: 2.2, 7.23) and household food insecurity (COR: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.09, 4.12) were significantly associated with anemia. Conclusion The prevalence of anemia among the children was found to be high and associated with child age group, child nutritional status, house hold headed by female, maternal anemia and household food insecurity. Further studies on nutritional anemia, community based nutritional education, iron supplementation to children at risk should be promoted.
Background Tuberculosis is a major public health problem caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, occurring predominantly in population with low socioeconomic status. It is the second most common cause of death from infectious diseases. Tuberculosis becomes a double burden among anemic patients. Anemia increases an individual’s susceptibility to infectious diseases including tuberculosis by reducing the immunity level. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether anemia is a risk factor for tuberculosis. Method Relevant published articles were searched in electronic databases like PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library using the following MeSH terms: risk factor, predictors, tuberculosis, TB, Anaemia, Anemia, hemoglobin, Hgb, and Hb. Articles written in the English, observational studies conducted on the incidence/prevalence of tuberculosis among anemic patients, or papers examined anemia as risk factors for tuberculosis were included. From those studies meeting eligibility criteria, the first author’s name, publication year, study area, sample size and age of participants, study design, and effect measure of anemia for tuberculosis were extracted. The data were entered using Microsoft Excel and exported to Stata version 11 for analysis. The random-effects model was applied to estimate the pooled OR and HR, and 95% CI. The sources of heterogeneity were tested by Cochrane I-squared statistics. The publication bias was assessed using Egger’s test statistics. Results A total of 17 articles with a 215,294 study participants were included in the analysis. The odd of tuberculosis among anemic patients was 3.56 (95% CI 2.53–5.01) times higher than non-anemic patients. The cohort studies showed that the HR of tuberculosis was 2.01 (95% CI 1.70–2.37) times higher among anemic patients than non-anemic patients. The hazard of tuberculosis also increased with anemia severity (HR 1.37 (95% CI 0.92–2.05), 2.08 (95% CI 1.14–3.79), and 2.66 (95% CI 1.71–4.13) for mild, moderate, and severe anemia, respectively). Conclusion According to the current systematic review and meta-analysis, we can conclude that anemia was a risk factor for tuberculosis. Therefore, anemia screening, early diagnose, and treatment should be provoked in the community to reduce the burden of tuberculosis.
IntroductionThrombocytopenia is a common hematologic abnormality during pregnancy. Pregnant women with thrombocytopenia have a higher risk of bleeding excessively during or after childbirth, particularly if they need to have a cesarean section or other surgical intervention during pregnancy, labor or in the puerperium. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of thrombocytopenia among pregnant women attending antenatal care service at Gondar University Hospital, northwest Ethiopia.Materials and methodsA cross-sectional study was used to assess the prevalence of thrombocytopenia among pregnant women attending antenatal care service at Gondar University Hospital from January to April 2015. A total of 217 pregnant women were included in the study and a structured pretested questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic information, nutritional factors, obstetrics and gynecological factors, history and clinical condition. Blood samples were collected for platelet count and other platelet parameters, which were determined by using SysmexKX 21 automation. The data were entered to Epi info version 6 software and analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. Bivariable and multivariable statistical analyses were used to evaluate the effect of independent variable over the dependent variable. A p-value of <0.05 was considered as statistically significant.ResultA total of 217 women receiving antenatal care service at Gondar University Hospital participated in the study. Thrombocytopenia among 19 pregnant women showed a prevalence of 8.8%. The mean ± standard deviation platelet count was 238.85×109/L (±74.57). Thrombocytopenia was significantly associated with patients who lived rurally (crude odds ratio =4.3, 95% confidence interval 1.48–12.76).ConclusionThe prevalence of thrombocytopenia was 8.8% predominantly with mild type of thrombocytopenia. Thrombocytopenia was higher among pregnant women who lived rurally. Therefore, health care providers should screen routinely for thrombocytopenia to avoid excessive bleeding during pregnancy, especially in women who live rurally.
Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) patients show a significant derangement in various hematological parameters including changes affecting the red blood cells (RBCs). All these derangements have an imposing effect on any of the RBC indices. Thus, the main aim of this study was determining the RBCs parameters and their correlation with renal function, and also the magnitude of anemia in DM patients in comparison with healthy controls. Methods A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at the chronic illness clinic of University of Gondar Hospital from January to April 2020. A total of 246 participants (164 DM and 82 controls) were selected using a simple random sampling technique. Data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire. Five milliliters venous blood was collected by vacutainer blood collection technique. RBC parameters and renal function tests were determined by using Sysmex KX21N and BS-200E Mindray analyzers, respectively. The data were tested for normality using Shapiro–Wilk and Kolmogorov–Smirnov tests. Independent sample t -test and Pearson’s and Spearman correlation statistics were used to analyze variables. A p-value ˂0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results The mean hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration was 13.8±0.7 and 15±1.3 among DM and controls, respectively. RBC (p=0.014), Hgb (p ˂0.001), hematocrit (Hct) (p ˂0.001), and mean cell volume (MCV) (p ˂0.001) were significantly lower in DM patients as compared to controls. On the other hand, mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) was significantly increased in DM patients (p ˂0.001) than the controls. Besides, a significant negative correlation was found between Hgb and creatinine (Cr) in DM patients. Conclusion The mean values of RBC parameters (RBC, Hgb, Hct, and MCV) for DM patients were found significantly lower than the control groups. Besides a significant negative correlation was found between Cr and RBC indices (RBC, Hgb, Hct, and MCV) in DM patients. It is, therefore, suggested that RBC parameters abnormalities should be evaluated and treated periodically in DM patients for better prognosis and quality of life.
Objective We aimed at assessing the basic coagulation parameters of HIV-infected adults at the University of Gondar Hospital antiretroviral therapy clinic. Methods A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted from February to May 2017. A total of 300 study participants, consisting of 100 HAART-naïve HIV-infected adults, 100 HIV-infected adults who were taking HAART, and 100 HIV-seronegative apparently healthy adults, were included. Basic coagulation functional assays such as PT, APTT, and INR were determined by coagulation analyzer. CD4 cells and platelet count were analyzed by FACS count and SYSMEX K-21N automated analyzer, respectively. The data were entered, cleaned, and edited using Epi Info version 7 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Kruskal-Wallis H, Dunn-Bonferroni pairwise comparison test, and Spearman's rank-order correlation analysis were used for inferential statistics. The results were expressed by a median and presented in tables. P value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results PT, APTT, and INR were significantly higher, whereas platelet count was significantly lower in HIV-infected adults (both who were taking HAART and HAART-naïve) than HIV-seronegative adults (P < 0.001). PT and INR were significantly higher, and platelet count was significantly lower in HAART-naïve HIV-infected adults than HIV-infected adults who were taking HAART. In Spearman's rank-order correlation analysis, APTT has shown a significant negative correlation with a CD4 count in HAART-naïve HIV-infected adults. Conclusion HIV-infected adults are more likely to develop coagulation abnormality than HIV-seronegative subjects. Coagulation parameters need to be checked regularly to monitor coagulation disorders in HIV-infected adults.
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