Our aim was to investigate whether molecular classification can be used to refine prognosis in grade 3 endometrial endometrioid carcinomas (EECs). Grade 3 EECs were classified into 4 subgroups: p53 abnormal, based on mutant-like immunostaining (p53abn); MMR deficient, based on loss of mismatch repair protein expression (MMRd); presence of POLE exonuclease domain hotspot mutation (POLE); no specific molecular profile (NSMP), in which none of these aberrations were present. Overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method (Log-rank test) and univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. In total, 381 patients were included. The median age was 66 years (range, 33 to 96 y). Federation Internationale de Gynecologie et d'Obstetrique stages (2009) were as follows: IA, 171 (44.9%); IB, 120 (31.5%); II, 24 (6.3%); III, 50 (13.1%); IV, 11 (2.9%). There were 49 (12.9%) POLE, 79 (20.7%) p53abn, 115 (30.2%) NSMP, and 138 (36.2%) MMRd tumors. Median follow-up of patients was 6.1 years (range, 0.2 to 17.0 y). Compared to patients with NSMP, patients with POLE mutant grade 3 EEC (OS: hazard ratio [HR], 0.36 [95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.70]; P=0.003; RFS: HR, 0.17 [0.05-0.54]; P=0.003) had a significantly better prognosis; patients with p53abn tumors had a significantly worse RFS (HR, 1.73 [1.09-2.74]; P=0.021); patients with MMRd tumors showed a trend toward better RFS. Estimated 5-year OS rates were as follows: POLE 89%, MMRd 75%, NSMP 69%, p53abn 55% (Log rank P=0.001). Five-year RFS rates were as follows: POLE 96%, MMRd 77%, NSMP 64%, p53abn 47% (P=0.000001), respectively. In a multivariable Cox model that included age and Federation Internationale de Gynecologie et d'Obstetrique stage, POLE and MMRd status remained independent prognostic factors for better RFS; p53 status was an independent prognostic factor for worse RFS. Molecular classification of grade 3 EECs reveals that these tumors are a mixture of molecular subtypes of endometrial carcinoma, rather than a homogeneous group. The addition of molecular markers identifies prognostic subgroups, with potential therapeutic implications.
Objective Preterm parturition is a syndrome caused by multiple etiologies. Although intra-amniotic infection is causally linked with intrauterine inflammation and the onset of preterm labor, other patients have preterm labor in the absence of demonstrable infection. It is now clear that inflammation may be elicited by activation of the Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs), which include pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) as well as “alarmins” (endogenous molecules that signal tissue and cellular damage). A prototypic alarmin is high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein, capable of inducing inflammation and tissue repair when it reaches the extracellular environment. HMGB1 is a late-mediator of sepsis, and blockade of HMGB1 activity reduces mortality in an animal model of endotoxemia, even if administered late during the course of the disorder. The objectives of this study were to: 1) determine whether intra-amniotic infection/inflammation (IAI) is associated with changes in amniotic fluid concentrations of HMGB1; and 2) localize immunoreactivity of HMGB1 in the fetal membranes and umbilical cord of patients with chorioamnionitis. Methods Amniotic fluid samples were collected from the following groups: 1) preterm labor with intact membranes (PTL) with (n=42) and without IAI (n=84); and 2) preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PROM) with (n=38) and without IAI (n=35). IAI was defined as either a positive amniotic fluid culture or amniotic fluid concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) ≥2.6 ng/mL. HMGB1 concentrations in amniotic fluid were determined by ELISA. Immunofluorescence staining for HMGB1 was performed in the fetal membranes and umbilical cord of pregnancies with acute chorioamnionitis. Results Amniotic fluid HMGB1 concentrations were higher in patients with IAI than in those without IAI in both the PTL and preterm PROM groups (PTL IAI: median 3.1 ng/mL vs. without IAI; median 0.98 ng/mL; p<0.001; and preterm PROM with IAI median 7.3 ng/mL vs. without IAI median 2.6 ng/mL; p=0.002); patients with preterm PROM without IAI had a higher median amniotic fluid HMGB1 concentration than those with PTL and intact membranes without IAI (p<0.001); and HMGB1 was immunolocalized to amnion epithelial cells and stromal cells in the Wharton’s jelly (prominent in the nuclei and cytoplasm). Myofibroblasts and macrophages of the chorioamniotic connective tissue layer and infiltrating neutrophils showed diffuse cytoplasmic HMGB1 immunoreactivity. Conclusions Intra-amniotic infection/inflammation is associated with elevated amniotic fluid HMGB1 concentrations regardless of membrane status; preterm PROM was associated with a higher amniotic fluid HMGB1 concentration than PTL with intact membranes, suggesting that rupture of membranes is associated with an elevation of alarmins; immunoreactive HMGB1 was localized to amnion epithelial cells, Wharton’s jelly and cells involved in the innate immune response; and we propose that HMGB1 released from stress or injured cells into amniotic flui...
The Cancer Genome Atlas described four major genomic groups of endometrial carcinomas, including a POLE ultramutated subtype comprising B10% of endometrioid adenocarcinoma, characterized by POLE exonuclease domain mutations, ultrahigh somatic mutation rates, and favorable outcome. Our aim was to examine the morphological and clinicopathological features of ultramutated endometrial carcinomas harboring somatic POLE exonuclease domain mutations. Hematoxylin and eosin slides and pathology reports for 8/17 POLEmutated endometrial carcinomas described in the Cancer Genome Atlas study were studied; for the remaining cases, virtual whole slide images publicly available at cBioPortal (www.cbioportal.org) were examined. A second cohort of eight POLE mutated endometrial carcinomas from University of Calgary was also studied. Median age was 55 years (range 33-87 years). Nineteen patients presented as stage I, 1 stage II, and 5 stage III. The majority of cases (24 of the 25) demonstrated defining morphological features of endometrioid differentiation. The studied cases were frequently high grade (60%) and rich in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and/or peri-tumoral lymphocytes (84%); many tumors showed morphological heterogeneity (52%) and ambiguity (16%). Foci demonstrating severe nuclear atypia led to concern for serous carcinoma in 28% of cases. At the molecular level, the majority of the Cancer Genome Atlas POLE-mutated tumors were microsatellite stable (65%), and TP53 mutations were present in 35% of cases. They also harbored mutations in PTEN (94%), FBXW7 (82%), ARID1A (76%), and PIK3CA (71%). All patients from both cohorts were alive without disease, and none of the patients developed recurrence at the time of follow-up (median 33 months; range 2-102 months). In conclusion, the recognition of ultramutated endometrial carcinomas with POLE exonuclease domain mutation is important given their favorable outcome. Our histopathological review revealed that these tumors are commonly high grade, have obvious lymphocytic infiltrates, and can show ambiguous morphology. As they frequently harbor TP53 mutations, it is important not to misclassify them as serous carcinoma.
Objective Preeclampsia (PE) has been classified into early- and late-onset disease. These two phenotypic variants of PE have been proposed to have a different pathophysiology. However, the gestational age cut-off to define ‘early’ versus ‘late’ PE has varied among studies. The objective of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of lesions consistent with maternal underperfusion of the placenta in patients with PE as a function of gestational age. Study design A nested case-control study of 8,307 singleton pregnant women who deliver after 20 weeks of gestation was constructed based on a cohort. Cases were defined as those with PE (n=910); controls were pregnant women who did not have a hypertensive disorder in pregnancy (n=7,397). The frequency of maternal underperfusion of the placenta (according to the criteria of the Society for Pediatric Pathology) was compared between the two groups. Logistic regression was used for analysis. Estimated relative risks were calculated from adjusted odds ratios. Results 1) The prevalence of lesions consistent with maternal underperfusion was higher in patients with PE than in the control group [43.3% vs. 15.9%; unadjusted odds ratio 4.0 (95% CI 3.5–4.7); P<0.001]; 2) the estimated relative risk of maternal underperfusion lesions in PE was higher than in the control group; 3) the lower the gestational age at delivery, the higher the relative risk for these lesions; 4) early-onset PE, regardless of the gestational age used to define it (<32, 33, 34, 35 or 37 weeks) had a significantly higher frequency of placental lesions consistent with maternal underperfusion than late-onset PE (p<0.001 for all). Conclusions 1) The earlier the gestational age of preeclampsia at delivery, the higher the frequency of placental lesions consistent with maternal underperfusion; 2) our data suggests that demonstrable placental involvement as determined by pathologic examination differs in early- and late-onset preeclampsia; and 3) this phenomenon appears to be a continuum, and we could not identify a clear and unambiguous gestational age at which lesions consistent with underperfusion would not be present.
Objective An imbalance between maternal angiogenic/anti-angiogenic factors concentrations has been observed in preeclampsia (PE) and other obstetrical syndromes. However, the frequency of pathologic findings in the placenta and the changes in maternal plasma angiogenic/anti-angiogenic factor concentrations differ between late-and early-onset PE. The aim of this study was to determine if the maternal plasma concentrations of placental growth factor (PlGF), soluble endoglin (sEng), and soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 and 2 (sVEGFR-1 and sVEGFR-2) are different in late-onset PE with and without placental pathologic findings consistent with maternal underperfusion. Study design A cross-sectional study was conducted including 64 uncomplicated women and 66 women with late-onset PE (>34 weeks) who had blood samples and placenta available for pathologic examination. Patients with late-onset PE were divided into those with and without placental histologic findings consistent with maternal underperfusion as proposed by the Society for Pediatric Pathology. Maternal plasma concentrations of PlGF, sEng, sVEGFR-1 and sVEGFR-2 were determined by ELISA. Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. Results 1) the prevalence of placental histological findings consistent with maternal underperfusion among women with late-onset PE was higher than that of those with an uncomplicated pregnancy (47% (31/66) vs. 7.8% (5/64) respectively; p<0.01); 2) patients with late-onset PE and histological findings consistent with maternal underperfusion had a significantly lower median plasma concentration of PlGF, plasma PlGF/sVEGFR-1 ratio and plasma PlGF/sEng ratio than those with late-onset PE without placental underperfusion lesions (each p<0.05); 3) the most common pathological findings in the placenta of patient with PE were lesions consistent with villous changes (77%, 24/31); and 4) isolated vascular lesions in the placenta were found only in 2 cases (6.5%), and the rest had a combination of villous and vascular lesions. Conclusions Nearly half of the patients with late-onset PE have placental lesions consistent with maternal underperfusion. These lesions are associated with an imbalance in the maternal concentration of angiogenic/anti-angiogenic factors. We propose that there is a link between maternal underperfusion and an anti-angiogenic state characterized by the changes in the concentrations of angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors in women with late onset PE.
Objective High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein is an alarmin, a normal cell constituent, which is released into the extracellular environment upon cellular stress/damage, and is capable of activating inflammation and tissue repair. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) can bind HMGB1. RAGE, in turn, can induce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines; this may be modulated the soluble truncated forms of RAGE, including soluble RAGE (sRAGE) and endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE). The objective of this study was to determine: 1) if clinical chorioamnionitis at term is associated with changes in amniotic fluid concentrations of HMGB1, sRAGE and esRAGE; and 2) if the amniotic fluid concentration of HMGB1 changes with labor or as a function of gestational age. Methods Amniotic fluid samples were collected from the following groups: 1) mid-trimester (MT) (n=45); 2) term with (n=48) and without labor (n=22) without intra-amniotic infection; and 3) term with clinical chorioamnionitis (n=46). Amniotic fluid concentrations of HMGB1, sRAGE and esRAGE concentrations were determined by ELISA. Results 1) the median amniotic fluid HMGB1 concentration was higher in patients at term with clinical chorioamnionitis than that of those without this condition (clinical chorioamnionitis: median 3.8 ng/mL vs. term in labor: median 1.8 ng/mL, p=0.007; and vs. term not in labor median 1.1 ng/mL, p=0.003); 2) in contrast, patients with clinical chorioamnionitis had a lower median sRAGE concentration than those without this condition (clinical chorioamnionitis: median 9.3 ng/mL vs. term in labor: median 18.6 ng/mL, p=0.001; and vs. term not in labor median 28.4 ng/mL, p<0.001); 3) amniotic fluid concentrations of esRAGE did not significantly change in patients with clinical chorioamnionitis at term (clinical chorioamnionitis: median 5.4 ng/mL vs. term in labor: median 6.1 ng/mL, p=0.9; and vs. term not in labor median 9.5 ng/mL, p=0.06); and 4) there was no significant difference in the median AF HMGB1 concentration between women at term in labor and those not in labor (p=0.4) and between women in the mid-trimester and those at term not in labor (mid-trimester: median 1.5 ng/mL; p=0.2). Conclusion An increase in the amniotic fluid HMGB1 concentration and a decrease in sRAGE were observed in clinical chorioamnionitis at term. This finding provides evidence that an alarmin, HMGB1, and one of its receptors, sRAGE, are engaged in the process of clinical chorioamnionitis at term. These changes are quite different from those observed in cases of intra-amniotic infection/inflammation in preterm gestations.
Objective To assess the diagnostic performance of transabdominal sonographic measurement of cervical length in identifying patients with a short cervix. Methods Cervical length was measured in 220 pregnant women using transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasound (US). Reproducibility and agreement between and within both methods were assessed. The diagnostic accuracy of transabdominal US for identifying cases with a cervical length <25mm was evaluated. Results Twenty-one out of 220 cases (9.5%) had a cervical length <25mm by transvaginal US. Only 43% (n=9) of patients with a short cervix were correctly identified by transabdominal US. In patients with a cervical length of <25mm by transvaginal US, transabdominal measurement of the cervix overestimated this parameter by an average of 8mm (95% LOAs: −26.4 to 10.5mm). Among women without a short cervix, transabdominal US underestimated cervical length on average (LOA) by 1.1mm (95% LOAs: −11.0 to 13.2mm). Transvaginal US was also more reproducible (intraclass correlation coefficient: (ICC: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.94 to 0.97) based on comparisons between 2D images and immediately acquired 3D volume datasets relative to transabdominal US (ICC: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.57 to 0.84). Transvaginal US detected 13 cases with funneling and 6 cases with sludge whereas only 3 cases of funneling and one of sludge were detected by transabdominal US. Conclusion Transabdominal measurement overestimated cervical LOA by 8mm among women with a short cervix and resulted in the underdiagnosis of 57% of cases.
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