The osteocyte, a terminally differentiated cell comprising 90%-95% of all bone cells 1,2 , may have multiple functions, including acting as a mechanosensor in bone (re)modeling 3 . Dentin matrix protein 1 (encoded by DMP1) is highly expressed in osteocytes 4 and, when deleted in mice, results in a hypomineralized bone phenotype 5 . We investigated the potential for this gene not only to direct skeletal mineralization but also to regulate phosphate (P i ) homeostasis. Both Dmp1-null mice and individuals with a newly identified disorder, autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets, manifest rickets and osteomalacia with isolated renal phosphate-wasting associated with elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels and normocalciuria. Mutational analyses showed that autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets family carried a mutation affecting the DMP1 start codon, and a second family carried a 7-bp deletion disrupting the highly conserved DMP1 C terminus. Mechanistic studies using Dmp1-null mice demonstrated that absence of DMP1 results in defective osteocyte maturation and increased FGF23 expression, leading to pathological changes in bone mineralization. Our findings suggest a bone-renal axis that is central to guiding proper mineral metabolism.Human disorders of phosphate (P i ) handling and skeletal mineralization can result from mutations in PHEX 6 , which cause X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH). A similar phenotype is also observed in Hyp mice, which have mutant Phex 7 and show increased osteocyte expression of the phosphaturic factor FGF23 (ref. 8 Individuals F1-1 and F1-3 presented with rickets and progressive lower limb deformity in late infancy, whereas sister F1-2 had rachitic changes on a chest X-ray at age 7 months. In contrast, F2-1 presented with a mild genu valgum at 8 years of age. The pre-or off-treatment age-related metabolic profiles for both kindreds were similar, characterized by hypophosphatemia owing to renal phosphate-wasting (serum P i : 0.7-0.9 mmol/l, normal: 1.2-1.8; threshold maximum for renal tubular phosphate reabsorption/glomerular filtration rate (TmP/GFR): 0.61-0.81 mmol/l, lower limit of normal: ≥1.0), high normal to moderately elevated alkaline phosphatase, normal intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels (4.6-6.9 pmol/l, normal: 1.6-6.9), normocalcemia (ionized calcium: 1. Resolution of rickets and normalization of alkaline phosphatase were observed during treatment with phosphate supplementation and calcitriol; however, the TmP/GFR remained low. Linear growth trajectories were heterogeneous among the affected individuals: affected individuals in F1 had a mid-parental height of 154.5 cm (5 th -10 th percentiles), with F1-1 and F1-2 measuring 153 cm (5 th percentile) and 136.5 cm (<5 th percentile) at final adult height, respectively. F1-3 had a height of 153.5 cm at 10 months post-menarche, well within the genetic target. The affected individual in F-2 had a final adult height of 172 cm (90 th -95 th percentile), 3 cm above the upper limit of her genetic ta...
Odontoblasts in dentin and osteocytes in bone contain dendritic processes. To test if their dendrites share a common feature, we compared their cellular morphology as visualized using scanning electron microscopy. Analysis of our data showed that both cells share an identical dendritic canalicular system and express extensive processes forming a complex network within the mineralized matrix. Because dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), an extracellular matrix protein, is highly expressed in both types of cells, we next tested, using a transgenic approach, whether a 9.6-kb Dmp1 promoter-4-kb 1st intron would be able to target Cre cDNA in these cells for expression/deletion of other genes in odontoblasts and osteocytes. We determined the specificity and efficiency of Cre activity by crossing Dmp1-Cre mice with ROSA26 reporter mice. Results showed that odontoblasts and osteocytes were specifically targeted, suggesting that this animal model will be useful for the preferential study of gene functions in both types of cells.
The dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1) gene is identified in odontoblasts during both embryonic and postnatal development. In vitro study suggests that this noncollagen acidic phosphoprotein plays a role in mineralization. However, deletion of the Dmp-1 gene has little effect on tooth development during embryogenesis. To address the role of DMP-1 in tooth during postnatal development, we analyzed changes of dentinogenesis in Dmp-1 null mice from 3 days after birth to 1 year. Here we show that Dmp-1 null mice postnatally develop a profound tooth phenotype characterized by a partial failure of maturation of predentin into dentin, enlarged pulp chambers, increased width of predentin zone with reduced dentin wall, and hypomineralization. The tooth phenotype of these mice is strikingly similar to that in dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) null mice and shares some features of the human disease dentinogenesis imperfecta III. We have also demonstrated that DSPP levels are reduced in Dmp-1 null mice, suggesting that DSPP is probably regulated by DMP-1 during dentinogenesis. Finally, we show the absence or delayed development of the third molar in Dmp-1 null mice, which is probably secondary to defects in Dmp-1 null bone. Taken together, these studies suggest that DMP-1 is essential for later dentinogenesis during postnatal development.Dentin is a mineralized tissue that closely resembles bone in composition and mechanism of formation. The mechanisms for mineralization are largely unclear, although two hypotheses are proposed to explain initiating mineralization: matrix vesicles in mantle dentin and collagen-phosphophoryn complexes in circumpulpal dentin (1). The in vitro studies also suggest that phosphorylated extracellular matrix (ECM) 1 proteins localized within collagen gap zones can bind calcium and phosphate ions in an appropriate conformation to nucleate the formation of apatite crystals (2, 3). One of the noncollagenous proteins that appears to play an important role in dentin ECM formation and mineralization is dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1).DMP-1, an acidic phosphorylated extracellular matrix protein (4), is expressed in odontoblasts that secrete matrix proteins to form dentin. Using protein chemistry approaches, some progress has been made in identifying the normally processed forms of DMP-1 in mineralized tissues (5). Although full-length DMP-1 has been cloned and sequenced, the corresponding intact protein has not been isolated from mineralized tissues. However, two proteolytic fragments, a 37-kDa N-terminal fragment and a 57-kDa C-terminal fragment, have been isolated from bone and dentin extracts (5). Recent studies suggest that DMP-1 can be cleaved by bone morphogenetic protein-1/tolloidlike proteinases (6).In vitro studies suggest that overexpression of Dmp-1 induces differentiation of mesenchymal cells to odontoblast-like cells and enhances mineralization (7) and that DMP-1 can bind to Ca 2ϩ and initiate mineral deposition in vitro (8). However, effects of recombinant DMP-1 on in vitro mineralization are ...
Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (Dmp1) was originally identified from dentin. However, its expression and function in vivo are not clear. To clarify these two issues, we have generated mice carrying a truncated Dmp1 gene by using gene targeting to replace exon 6 with a lacZ gene. Northern blot analysis shows the expected 5.8-kb Dmp1-lacZ fusion transcript and loss of the wild-type 2.8-kb Dmp1 transcript, confirmed by a lack of immunostaining for the protein. Using heterozygous animals, we demonstrate that Dmp1 is specific for mineralized tissues. Not previously shown, Dmp1 is also expressed in pulp cells. Dmp1-deficient embryos and newborns display no apparent gross abnormal phenotype, although there are a modest expansion of the hypertrophic chondrocyte zone and a modest increase in the long bone diameter. This suggests that DMP1 is not essential for early mouse skeletal or dental development.
Background-The ability of the periodontal ligament (PDL) to absorb and distribute forces is necessary for periodontal homeostasis. This adaptive response may be determined, in part, by a key molecule, periostin, which maintains the integrity of the PDL during occlusal function and inflammation. Periostin is primarily expressed in the PDL and is highly homologous to βig-H3 (transforming growth factor-beta [TGF-β] inducible gene). Cementum, alveolar bone, and the PDL of periostin-null mice dramatically deteriorate following tooth eruption. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of periostin in maintaining the functional integrity of the periodontium.
Granulin epithelin precursor (GEP) has been implicated in development, tissue regeneration, tumorigenesis, and inflammation. Herein we report that GEP stimulates chondrocyte differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells in vitro and endochondral ossification ex vivo, and GEP-knockdown mice display skeleton defects. Similar to bone morphogenic protein (BMP) 2, application of the recombinant GEP accelerates rabbit cartilage repair in vivo. GEP is a key downstream molecule of BMP2, and it is required for BMP2-mediated chondrocyte differentiation. We also show that GEP activates chondrocyte differentiation through Erk1/2 signaling and that JunB transcription factor is one of key downstream molecules of GEP in chondrocyte differentiation. Collectively, these findings reveal a novel critical role of GEP growth factor in chondrocyte differentiation and the molecular events both in vivo and in vitro.
Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is expressed in both pulp and odontoblast cells and deletion of the Dmp1 gene leads to defects in odontogenesis and mineralization. The goals of this study were to examine how DMP1 controls dentin mineralization and odontogenesis in vivo. Fluorochrome labeling of dentin in Dmp1-null mice showed a diffuse labeling pattern with a 3-fold reduction in dentin appositional rate compared to controls. Deletion of DMP1 was also associated with abnormalities in the dentinal tubule system and delayed formation of the third molar. Unlike the mineralization defect in Vitamin D receptor-null mice, the mineralization defect in Dmp1-null mice was not rescued by a high calcium and phosphate diet, suggesting a different effect of DMP1 on mineralization. Re-expression of Dmp1 in early and late odontoblasts under control of the Col1a1 promoter rescued the defects in mineralization as well as the defects in the dentinal tubules and third molar development. In contrast, re-expression of Dmp1 in mature odontoblasts, using the Dspp promoter, produced only a partial rescue of the mineralization defects. These data suggest that DMP1 is a key regulator of odontoblast differentiation, formation of the dentin tubular system and mineralization and its expression is required in both early and late odontoblasts for normal odontogenesis to proceed.
Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP-1) is a key molecule in controlling osteocyte formation and phosphate homeostasis. Based on observations that full-length DMP-1 is not found in bone, but only cleaved fragments of 37 and 57 kDa are present, and in view of the finding that mutations in the 57-kDa fragment result in disease, we hypothesized that the 57-kDa C-terminal fragment is the functional domain of DMP-1. To test this hypothesis, a 3.6-kb type I collagen promoter was used to express this 57-kDa C-terminal fragment for comparison with full-length DMP-1 in Dmp1 null osteoblasts/osteocytes. Not only did expression of the full-length DMP-1 in bone cells fully rescue the skeletal abnormalities of Dmp1 null mice, but the 57-kDa fragment also had similar results. This included rescue of growth plate defects, osteomalacia, abnormal osteocyte maturation, and the abnormal osteocyte lacunocanalicular system. In addition, the abnormal fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) expression in osteocytes, elevated circulating FGF-23 levels, and hypophosphatemia were rescued. These results show that the 57-kDa C-terminal fragment is the functional domain of DMP-1 that controls osteocyte maturation and phosphate metabolism. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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