Gossypium hirsutum has proven difficult to sequence owing to its complex allotetraploid (AtDt) genome. Here we produce a draft genome using 181-fold paired-end sequences assisted by fivefold BAC-to-BAC sequences and a high-resolution genetic map. In our assembly 88.5% of the 2,173-Mb scaffolds, which cover 89.6%∼96.7% of the AtDt genome, are anchored and oriented to 26 pseudochromosomes. Comparison of this G. hirsutum AtDt genome with the already sequenced diploid Gossypium arboreum (AA) and Gossypium raimondii (DD) genomes revealed conserved gene order. Repeated sequences account for 67.2% of the AtDt genome, and transposable elements (TEs) originating from Dt seem more active than from At. Reduction in the AtDt genome size occurred after allopolyploidization. The A or At genome may have undergone positive selection for fiber traits. Concerted evolution of different regulatory mechanisms for Cellulose synthase (CesA) and 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase1 and 3 (ACO1,3) may be important for enhanced fiber production in G. hirsutum.
Cotton is one of the most economically important crop plants worldwide. Its fiber, commonly known as cotton lint, is the principal natural source for the textile industry. Approximately 33 million ha (5% of the world's arable land) is used for cotton planting 1 , with an annual global market value of textile mills of approximately $630.6 billion in 2011 (MarketPublishers; see URLs). Apart from its economic value, cotton is also an excellent model system for studying polyploidization, cell elongation and cell wall biosynthesis 2-5 .The Gossypium genus contains 5 tetraploid (AD 1 to AD 5 , 2n = 4×) and over 45 diploid (2n = 2×) species (where n is the number of chromosomes in the gamete of an individual), which are believed to have originated from a common ancestor approximately 5-10 million years ago 6 . Eight diploid subgenomes, designated as A to G and K, have been found across North America, Africa, Asia and Australia. The haploid genome size of diploid cottons (2n = 2× = 26) varies from about 880 Mb (G. raimondii Ulbrich) in the D genome to 2,500 Mb in the K genome 7,8 . Diploid cotton species share a common chromosome number (n = 13), and high levels of synteny or colinearity are observed among them 9-12 . The tetraploid cotton species (2n = 4× = 52), such as G. hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L., are thought to have formed by an allopolyploidization event that occurred approximately 1-2 million years ago, which involved a D-genome species as the pollen-providing parent and an A-genome species as the maternal parent 13,14 . To gain insights into the cultivated polyploid genomes-how they have evolved and how their subgenomes interact-it is first necessary to have a basic knowledge of the structure of the component genomes. Therefore, we have created a draft sequence of the putative D-genome parent, G. raimondii, using DNA samples prepared from Cotton Microsatellite Database (CMD) 10 (refs. 15,16), a genetic standard originated from a single seed (accession D 5 -3) in 2004 and brought to near homozygosity by six successive generations of self-fertilization. We believe that sequencing of the G. raimondii genome will not only provide a major source of candidate genes important for the genetic improvement of cotton quality and productivity, but it may also serve as a reference for the assembly of the tetraploid G. hirsutum genome. RESULTS Sequencing and assemblyA whole-genome shotgun strategy was used to sequence and assemble the G. raimondii genome. A total of 78.7 Gb of next-generation Illumina paired-end 50-bp, 100-bp and 150-bp reads was generated by sequencing genome shotgun libraries of different fragment lengths (170 bp, 250 bp, 500 bp, 800 bp, 2 kb, 5 kb, 10 kb, 20 kb and 40 kb) that covered 103.6-fold of the 775.2-Mb assembled G. raimondii genome (Supplementary Table 1). The resulting assembly appeared to cover a very large proportion of the euchromatin of the G. raimondii genome. The unassembled genomic regions are likely to contain heterochromatic satellites, large repetitive sequences or ribosoma...
The ancestors of Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium herbaceum provided the A subgenome for the modern cultivated allotetraploid cotton. Here, we upgraded the G. arboreum genome assembly by integrating different technologies. We resequenced 243 G. arboreum and G. herbaceum accessions to generate a map of genome variations and found that they are equally diverged from Gossypium raimondii. Independent analysis suggested that Chinese G. arboreum originated in South China and was subsequently introduced to the Yangtze and Yellow River regions. Most accessions with domestication-related traits experienced geographic isolation. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified 98 significant peak associations for 11 agronomically important traits in G. arboreum. A nonsynonymous substitution (cysteine-to-arginine substitution) of GaKASIII seems to confer substantial fatty acid composition (C16:0 and C16:1) changes in cotton seeds. Resistance to fusarium wilt disease is associated with activation of GaGSTF9 expression. Our work represents a major step toward understanding the evolution of the A genome of cotton.
Water confined between adjoining hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces (a Janus interface) is found to form stable films of nanometer thickness whose responses to shear deformations are extraordinarily noisy. The power spectrum of this noise is quantified. In addition, the frequency dependence of the complex shear modulus is a power law with slope one-half, indicating a distribution of relaxation processes rather than any dominant one. The physical picture emerges that whereas surface energetics encourage water to dewet the hydrophobic side of the interface, the hydrophilic side constrains water to be present, resulting in a flickering, fluctuating complex.
Multiple cotton genomes (diploid and tetraploid) have been assembled. However, genomic variations between cultivars of allotetraploid upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.), the most widely planted cotton species in the world, remain unexplored. Here, we use single-molecule long read and Hi-C sequencing technologies to assemble genomes of the two upland cotton cultivars TM-1 and zhongmiansuo24 (ZM24). Comparisons among TM-1 and ZM24 assemblies and the genomes of the diploid ancestors reveal a large amount of genetic variations. Among them, the top three longest structural variations are located on chromosome A08 of the tetraploid upland cotton, which account for ~30% total length of this chromosome. Haplotype analyses of the mapping population derived from these two cultivars and the germplasm panel show suppressed recombination rates in this region. This study provides additional genomic resources for the community, and the identified genetic variations, especially the reduced meiotic recombination on chromosome A08, will help future breeding.
Background:During February 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in Hubei Province, China, was at its height, requiring isolation of the population. This study aimed to compare the emotional state, somatic responses, sleep quality, and behavior of people in Hubei Province with non-endemic provinces in China during two weeks in February 2020. Material/Methods:Questionnaires were completed by 939 individuals (357 men; 582 women), including 33 from Hubei and 906 from non-endemic provinces. The Stress Response Questionnaire (SRQ) determined the emotional state, somatic responses, and behavior. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to measure the duration of sleep and sleep quality. Results:There were 939 study participants, aged 18 -24 years (35.89%) and 25 -39 years (35.57%); 65.92% were university students. During a two week period in February 2020, the emotional state and behavior of participants in Hubei improved, but the quality of sleep did not. Health workers and business people became increasingly anxious, but other professionals became less anxious. The data showed that most people in Hubei Province developed a more positive attitude regarding their risk of infection and the chances of surviving the COVID-19 epidemic. Conclusions:During a two-week period, front-line health workers and people in Hubei Province became less anxious about the COVID-19 epidemic, but sleep quality did not improve. Despite public awareness, levels of anxiety exist that affect the quality of life during epidemics, including periods of population quarantine. Therefore, health education should be combined with psychological counseling for vulnerable individuals.
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