Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer. However, we know little of mutational spectrum in the Chinese population. Thus, here we report the identification of somatic mutations for Chinese PTC using 402 tumor-normal pairs (Discovery: 91 pairs via exome sequencing; validation: 311 pairs via Sanger sequencing). We observed three distinct mutational signatures, evidently different from the two mutational signatures among Caucasian PTCs. Ten significantly mutated genes were identified, most previously uncharacterized. Notably, we found that long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) GAS8-AS1 is the secondary most frequently altered gene and acts as a novel tumor suppressor in PTC. As a mutation hotspot, the c.713A>G/714T>C dinucleotide substitution was found among 89.1% patients with GAS8-AS1 mutations and associated with advanced PTC disease (P = 0.009). Interestingly, the wild-type lncRNA GAS8-AS1 (A713T714) showed consistently higher capability to inhibit cancer cell growth compared to the mutated lncRNA (G713C714). Further studies also elucidated the oncogene nature of the G protein-coupled receptor LPAR4 and its c.872T>G (p.Ile291Ser) mutation in PTC malignant transformation. The BRAF c.1799T>A (p.Val600Glu) substitution was present in 59.0% Chinese PTCs, more frequently observed in patients with lymph node metastasis (P = 1.6 × 10(-4)). Together our study defines a exome mutational spectrum of PTC in the Chinese population and highlights lncRNA GAS8-AS1 and LPAR4 as potential diagnostics and therapeutic targets.
BackgroundCervical lymph node metastases are very common in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), and typically spread in a predictable stepwise fashion in clinical practice. However, lateral lymph node metastasis (LLNM) without central lymph node metastasis (CLNM) as skip metastasis is not rare in PTC. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence, risk factors and pattern of skip metastasis in PTC.MethodsA total of 271 patients with PTC and suspicious LLN diagnosed by pre-operation examinations who underwent total thyroidectomy and central lymph node dissection plus lateral lymph node dissection between January 2008 and December 2011 were enrolled in this study. Clinicopathological features were collected, and the pattern of cervical lymph node metastasis and skip metastasis were analyzed.ResultsThe LLNM rate was 74.9% (203/271, diagnosed by postoperative pathology examination) and significantly associated with extrathyroid extension (ETE), primary tumor located at the upper pole, and CLNM (p < 0.05). The skip metastasis rate was 14.8% (30/203) and was more frequently found in microcarcinoma patients, especially when the primary tumor size was ≤0.5 cm (p = 0.001 OR = 12.9). However, skip metastasis was unrelated to the remaining factors examined.ConclusionSmall cancers with a pre-operation diagnosis of LLNM are more likely to have skip metastases, especially when the primary tumor size is less than 0.5 cm in diameter; however, this type of metastasis appears to develop in a random fashion. Thus, additional research is needed to identify potential predictive factors, such as a primary tumor located at the upper pole.
Capsular invasion is an independent risk factor of DLN metastasis and DLN metastasis could be used as a predictor of lateral node metastasis. The dissection of DLN in PTC patients is recommended and lateral lymph node should be evaluated for patients with DLN positive.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors for lateral lymph node metastasis (LLNM) in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Subjects and methods: 356 patients diagnosed with PTC who underwent total thyroidectomy and central lymph node dissection and lateral lymph node dissection between January 2005 and December 2011 were enrolled. The relation between LLNM and clinicopathological features such as gender, age, tumor size, tumor spread, psammoma bodies, tumor multifocality, extrathyroidal extension (ETE), unilateral or bilateral disease, tumor primary location and central lymph node metastases (CLNM) was analyzed. Results: The rate of LLNM was 75.0%. In the univariate analysis, it was significantly associated with age, tumor size, tumor spread, extrathyroidal extension, primary tumor location and central lymph node metastasis (p < 0.05). In contrast, in the multivariate analysis, it was significantly associated with primary tumor location, central lymph node metastasis (p < 0.05) and tumor size > 1.5 cm with p = 0.05 but was unrelated to the other factors. Conclusion: Patients with PTC, with the primary tumor located in the upper part of the lobe and positive central compartment lymph node metastasis with a tumor size > 1.5 cm diameter are more likely to have LLNM. Therefore, more meticulous evaluations including the lateral lymph nodes should be performed before surgery. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2016;60(5):492-9
TERT is the catalytic subunit of telomerase which plays an essential part in cellular immortality by maintaining telomere integrity. TERT is commonly over-expressed in human malignancies, indicating its key role in cell transformation. The chromosome 5p15.33 TERT-CLPTM1L region has been associated with susceptibility of multiple cancers via a genome-wide association approach. However, the involvement of this locus in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) etiology is still largely unknown. We analyzed 15 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) of the TERT-CLPTM1L region in a two stage case-control design. After genotyping 2300 PTC patients and frequency-matched 2300 unaffected controls, we found that TERT rs2736100 genetic variant is significantly associated with elevated PTC risk. Ex vivo reporter gene assays indicated that the PTC susceptibility rs2736100 polymorphism locating in a potential TERT intronic enhancer has a genotype-specific effect on TERT expression. Correlations between rs2736100 genotypes and tissue-specific TERT expression supported the regulatory function of this genetic variant in vivo. Our data demonstrated that the functional TERT rs2736100 SNP as a novel genetic component of PTC etiology. This study, together with recent studies in other cancers, unequivocally establishes an essential role of TERT in cancers.
Objective. We performed this study to investigate the risk factors for postoperative hypocalcemia after total thyroidectomy with central lymph node dissection (CLND). Study Design. This was a single-center prospective study based on 176 consecutive patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Setting. Patients were recruited between January 2016 and June 2018. Subjects and Methods. Patients who underwent bilateral (n = 155, bilateral group) and ipsilateral CLND (n = 21) after total thyroidectomy were included. The preoperative and postoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium levels were detected. The risk factors for transient hypocalcemia were identified using logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results. Fifty-one (28.98%) patients developed transient hypocalcemia, and 2 patients (1.14%) developed permanent hypoparathyroidism. There was no difference in the gender ratio or the morbidity of hypocalcemia between the patients who underwent bilateral and ipsilateral CLND. On postoperative day 1, PTH decrease was a risk factor for transient hypocalcemia in the whole cohort (β = 0.043, OR = 1.044, 95% CI 1.023–1.065, p<0.001), bilateral group (β = 0.042, OR = 1.043, 95% CI 1.022–1.064, p<0.001), and female patients (β = 0.049, OR = 1.050, 95% CI 1.026–1.075, p<0.001). Tumor diameter was a risk factor for transient hypocalcemia in female patients (β = 0.499, OR = 1.647, 95% CI 1.003–2.704, p=0.049). The ROC curve analysis illustrated that 65.58%, 71.00%, and 71.00% PTH level reduction had high accuracy in predicting transient hypocalcemia in the whole cohort, bilateral group, and female patients, respectively (AUC = 0.986, 0.987, and 0.987). Conclusion. Asymptomatic female patients with bilateral CLND and a 71.00% PTH level reduction were at a high risk of transient hypocalcemia.
After a series of simulations were conducted, the simulated results were compatible with the published experimental data and this confirms the validation of the finite element model.
Objective: To determine the potential role of intraoperative carbon nanoparticles (CN) injections for identification and preservation of parathyroid glands, thereby reducing the postoperative hypocalcaemia. Methods: 100 patients with thyroid cancer who underwent total thyroidectomy and central compartment node dissection (CCND) were randomly assigned to receive intraoperative injection of (CN) or not for identifying and preserving normal parathyroid glands. Results: There was no significantly difference for preoperative and postoperative parathy roid hormone (PTH) levels between the CN and control group (P>0.05). The levels of albumin-adjusted serum calcium (AASC) before surgery and at day 1 and 1 month after surgery did not reach the significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). However, the patients in CN group had the higher level of AASC at day 3 after surgery than those in control group (P=0.044). Transient postoperative hypoparathyroidism occurred in 24 (48%) patients in CN group and 28 (56%) in control groups, respectively (P=0.423). The incidence of transient postoperative hypocalcemia was 20% (10/50) in CN group and 24% (12/50) in control groups, respectively (P=0.629). Conclusions: Carbon nanoparticles can make the thyroid gland and the central lymph node black-stained, but no-stained for parathyroid glands. After rapidly identifying parathyroid and distinguishing it from thyroid and lymph nodes by carbon nanoparticles, complete lymph node dissection and preservation of parathyroid glands become feasible during total thyroidectomy with neck lymph node dissection. After identification, strict adherence to capsular dissection remains essential for safe preservation in situ of the parathyroid glands and their blood supply.
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