Purpose Elevated lipogenesis regulated by sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), a transcription factor playing a central role in lipid metabolism, is a novel characteristic of glioblastoma (GBM). The aim of this study was to identify effective approaches to suppress GBM growth by inhibition of SREBP-1. As SREBP activation is negatively regulated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) cholesterol, we sought to determine whether suppression of sterol O-acyltransferase (SOAT), a key enzyme converting ER cholesterol to cholesterol esters (CE) to store in lipid droplets (LDs), effectively suppressed SREBP-1 and blocked GBM growth. Experimental Design The presence of LDs in glioma patient tumor tissues was analyzed using immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and electronic microscopy. Western blotting and real-time PCR were performed to analyze protein levels and gene expression of GBM cells, respectively. Intracranial GBM xenografts were used to determine the effects of genetically silencing SOAT1 and SREBP on tumor growth. Results Our study unraveled that cholesterol esterification and LD formation are signature of GBM, and human patients with glioma possess elevated LDs that correlate with GBM progression and poor survival. We revealed that SOAT1 is highly expressed in GBM and functions as a key player in controlling the cholesterol esterification and storage in GBM. Targeting SOAT1 suppresses GBM growth and prolongs survival in xenograft models via inhibition of SREBP-1-regulated lipid synthesis. Conclusions Cholesterol esterification and storage in LDs are novel characteristics of GBM, and inhibiting SOAT1 to block cholesterol esterification is a promising therapeutic strategy to treat GBM by suppressing SREBP-1.
SUMMARY Tumorigenesis is associated with increased glucose consumption and lipogenesis, but how these pathways are interlinked is unclear. Here, we delineate a pathway in which EGFR signaling, by increasing glucose uptake, promotes N-glycosylation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) and consequent activation of SREBP-1, an endoplasmic reticulum-bound transcription factor with central roles in lipid metabolism. Glycosylation stabilizes SCAP and reduces its association with Insig-1, allowing movement of SCAP/SREBP to the Golgi and consequent proteolytic activation of SREBP. Xenograft studies reveal that blocking SCAP N-glycosylation ameliorates EGFRvIII-driven glioblastoma growth. Thus, SCAP acts as key glucose-responsive protein linking oncogenic signaling and fuel availability to SREBP-dependent lipogenesis. Targeting SCAP N-glycosylation may provide a promising means of treating malignancies and metabolic diseases.
Glioblastoma (GBM), a mostly lethal brain tumor, acquires large amounts of free fatty acids (FAs) to promote cell growth. But how the cancer avoids lipotoxicity is unknown. Here, we identify that GBM upregulates diacylglycerol-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) to store excess FAs into triglycerides and lipid droplets. Inhibiting DGAT1 disrupted lipid homeostasis and resulted in excessive FAs moving into mitochondria for oxidation, leading to the generation of high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial damage, cytochrome c release, and apoptosis. Adding N-acetyl-cysteine or inhibiting FA shuttling into mitochondria decreased ROS and cell death induced by DGAT1 inhibition. We show in xenograft models that targeting DGAT1 blocked lipid droplet formation, induced tumor cell apoptosis, and markedly suppressed GBM growth. Together, our study demonstrates that DGAT1 upregulation protects GBM from oxidative damage and maintains lipid homeostasis by facilitating storage of excess FAs. Targeting DGAT1 could be a promising therapeutic approach for GBM.
By activating NAK via small GTPases and their downstream effectors, Nef interacts with regulatory pathways required for cell growth, cytoskeletal rearrangement and endocytosis. Thus, NAK could participate in the budding of new virions, the modification of viral proteins and the increased endocytosis of surface molecules such as CD4. Moreover, blocking the activity of these GTPases could lead to new therapeutic interventions against AIDS.
Standard controls and best practice guidelines advance acceptance of data from research, preclinical and clinical laboratories by providing a means for evaluating data quality. The External RNA Controls Consortium (ERCC) is developing commonly agreed-upon and tested controls for use in expression assays, a true industry-wide standard control.
This new classification highlights the importance of assessing and identifying the dynamic changes in the quality of fibrosis, especially relevant in the era of antiviral therapy.(Hepatology 2017;65:1438-1450).
Using oligonucleotide microarrays, we have examined the expression of 22,000 genes in peripheral blood cells treated with pegylated interferon-alpha2b (PEG-IFN-alpha) and ribavirin. Treatment with ribavirin had very little effect on gene expression, whereas treatment with PEG-IFN-alpha had a dramatic effect, modulating the expression of approximately 1000 genes (at p < 0.001). In addition to genes previously reported to be induced by type I or type II IFNs, many novel genes were found to be upregulated, including transcription factors, such as ATF3, ATF4, properdin, a key regulator of the complement pathway, a homeobox gene (HESX1), and an RNA editing enzyme (apobec3). Chemokines CXCL10 and CXCL11 were upregulated, whereas CXCL5 was downregulated. Cytokines interleukin-15 (IL-15) and IL-18 were also significantly induced, whereas IL-1alpha and IL-1beta were downregulated. Most other interleukins were not affected. The results of the microarrays were confirmed by kinetic real-time PCR. These data indicate that IFN treatment causes upregulation of genes associated with the stress response, apoptosis, and signaling, and an equal number of genes are downregulated, including those associated with protein synthesis, specific cytokines and chemokines and other biosynthetic functions.
Internalization of ligand-activated type I IGF receptor (IGF1R) is followed by recycling to the plasma membrane, degradation or nuclear translocation. Nuclear IGF1R reportedly associates with clinical response to IGF1R inhibitory drugs, yet its role in the nucleus is poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the significance of nuclear IGF1R in clinical cancers and cell line models. In prostate cancers, IGF1R was predominantly membrane localized in benign glands, while malignant epithelium contained prominent internalized (nuclear/cytoplasmic) IGF1R, and nuclear IGF1R associated significantly with advanced tumor stage. Using ChIP-seq to assess global chromatin occupancy, we identified IGF1R-binding sites at or near transcription start sites of genes including and, most sites coinciding with occupancy by RNA polymerase II (RNAPol2) and histone marks of active enhancers/promoters. IGF1R was inducibly recruited to chromatin, directly binding DNA and interacting with RNAPol2 to upregulate expression of JUN and FAM21, shown to mediate tumor cell survival and IGF-induced migration. IGF1 also enriched RNAPol2 on promoters containing IGF1R-binding sites. These functions were inhibited by IGF1/II-neutralizing antibody xentuzumab (BI 836845), or by blocking receptor internalization. We detected IGF1R on and promoters in fresh prostate cancers that contained abundant nuclear IGF1R, with evidence of correlation between nuclear IGF1R content and JUN expression in malignant prostatic epithelium. Taken together, these data reveal previously unrecognized molecular mechanisms through which IGFs promote tumorigenesis, with implications for therapeutic evaluation of anti-IGF drugs. These findings reveal a noncanonical nuclear role for IGF1R in tumorigenesis, with implications for therapeutic evaluation of IGF inhibitory drugs. .
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