Granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus are thought to be essential to memory function by decorrelating overlapping input patterns (pattern separation). A second excitatory cell type in the dentate gyrus, the mossy cell, forms an intricate circuit with granule cells, CA3c pyramidal cells, and local interneurons, but the influence of mossy cells on dentate function is often overlooked. Multiple tetrode recordings, supported by juxtacellular recording techniques, showed that granule cells fired very sparsely, whereas mossy cells in the hilus fired promiscuously in multiple locations and in multiple environments. The activity patterns of these cell types thus represent different environments through distinct computational mechanisms: sparse coding in granule cells and changes in firing field locations in mossy cells.
Episodic memory, the conscious recollection of past events, is typically experienced from a first-person (egocentric) perspective. The hippocampus plays an essential role in episodic memory and spatial cognition. Although the allocentric nature of hippocampal spatial coding is well understood, little is known about whether the hippocampus receives egocentric information about external items. We recorded single units of rats from the lateral (LEC) and medial (MEC) entorhinal cortex, the two major inputs to the hippocampus. Many LEC neurons showed tuning for egocentric bearing of external items, whereas MEC cells tended to represent allocentric bearing. These results demonstrate a fundamental dissociation between the reference frames of LEC and MEC neural representations.
Background and Purpose-Activation of NMDA subtypes of glutamate receptors is implicated in cell damage induced by ischemia as well as for the establishment of ischemic tolerance after ischemic preconditioning in animal models. We investigated the contributions of NR2A-and NR2B-containing NMDA receptors to ischemic cell death and ischemic tolerance in a rat model of transient global ischemia. Methods-Transient global ischemia was produced in rats by 4-vessel occlusion. Neuronal injury was analyzed by Fluoro-Jade B and Nissl staining. Phosphorylation of CREB was detected by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. In situ hybridization and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction were used to evaluate the mRNA level of cpg15 and bdnf. Results-NR2A subtype-specific antagonist NVP-AAM077 enhanced neuronal death after transient global ischemia and abolished the induction of ischemic tolerance. In contrast, NR2B subtype-specific antagonist ifenprodil attenuated ischemic cell death and enhanced preconditioning-induced neuroprotection. Furthermore, selectively blocking NR2A-, but not NR2B-, containing NMDA receptors inhibited ischemia-induced phosphorylation of CREB and the subsequent upregulation of CREB target genes such as cpg15 and bdnf. Conclusions-We found that NR2A-and NR2B-containing NMDA receptor subtypes play differential roles in ischemic neuronal death and ischemic tolerance, suggesting attractive new strategies for the development of drugs for patients with stroke. (Stroke. 2008;39:3042-3048.)
The transfer of T cell receptor (TCR) genes into patient T cells is a promising approach for the treatment of both viral infections and cancer. Although efficient methods exist to identify antibodies for the treatment of these diseases, comparable strategies to identify TCRs have been lacking. We have developed a high-throughput DNA-based strategy to identify TCR sequences by the capture and sequencing of genomic DNA fragments encoding the TCR genes. We establish the value of this approach by assembling a large library of cancer germline tumor antigen-reactive TCRs. Furthermore, by exploiting the quantitative nature of TCR gene capture, we show the feasibility of identifying antigen-specific TCRs in oligoclonal T cell populations from either human material or TCR-humanized mice. Finally, we demonstrate the ability to identify tumor-reactive TCRs within intratumoral T cell subsets without knowledge of antigen specificities, which may be the first step toward the development of autologous TCR gene therapy to target patient-specific neoantigens in human cancer.
Mutations in the X-linked gene encoding the transcriptional modulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) impair postnatal development of the brain. Here we use neuronal-type specific gene deletion in mice to show that conditional Mecp2 deletion in GABAergic parvalbumin-expressing (PV) cells (PV-Mecp2 À /y ) does not cause most Rett-syndrome-like behaviours, but completely abolishes experience-dependent critical period plasticity of primary visual cortex (V1) that develops normal visual functions. However, selective loss of Mecp2 in GABAergic somatostatin-expressing cells or glutamatergic pyramidal cells does not affect the critical period plasticity. MeCP2-deficient PV cells exhibit high intrinsic excitability, selectively reduced efficacy of recurrent excitatory synapses in V1 layer 4 circuits, and decreased evoked visual responses in vivo. Enhancing cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibition with diazepam infusion can restore critical period plasticity in both young and adult PV-Mecp2 À /y mice. Thus, MeCP2 expression in inhibitory PV cells during the critical period is essential for local circuit functions underlying experiencedependent cortical plasticity.
SIRT1, a NAD+ dependent class III deacetylase, takes part in many important biological processes. Previous studies show that SIRT1 is overexpressed in some cancers and plays an essential role in tumorigenesis. However, the association between SIRT1 and colorectal cancer (CRC) is still unclear. We found that many CRC specimens had strong SIRT1 expression, which had an obvious correlation with poor prognosis of CRC patients. Meanwhile, SIRT1 expression had a co-localization with CD133, a current universal marker to characterize colorectal cancer stem cells (CSCs). In vitro studies also revealed that SIRT1 was overexpressed in colorectal CSC-like cells. Moreover, SIRT1 deficiency decreased percentage of CD133+ cells, attenuated the abilities of colony and sphere formation, and inhibited tumorigenicity in vivo in CRC cells. Further study demonstrated that the expressions of several stemness-associated genes, including Oct4, Nanog, Cripto, Tert and Lin28, were reduced by SIRT1 knockdown in CRC cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that SIRT1 plays a crucial role in keeping the characteristics of CSCs cells. SIRT1 is a potential independent prognostic factor of CRC patients after tumor resection with curative intent, and will contribute to providing a promising new approach to target at CSCs in CRC treatment.
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