The 1000 Genomes Project set out to provide a comprehensive description of common human genetic variation by applying whole-genome sequencing to a diverse set of individuals from multiple populations. Here we report completion of the project, having reconstructed the genomes of 2,504 individuals from 26 populations using a combination of low-coverage whole-genome sequencing, deep exome sequencing, and dense microarray genotyping. We characterized a broad spectrum of genetic variation, in total over 88 million variants (84.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 3.6 million short insertions/deletions (indels), and 60,000 structural variants), all phased onto high-quality haplotypes. This resource includes >99% of SNP variants with a frequency of >1% for a variety of ancestries. We describe the distribution of genetic variation across the global sample, and discuss the implications for common disease studies.
The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas belongs to one of the most species-rich but genomically poorly explored phyla, the Mollusca. Here we report the sequencing and assembly of the oyster genome using short reads and a fosmid-pooling strategy, along with transcriptomes of development and stress response and the proteome of the shell. The oyster genome is highly polymorphic and rich in repetitive sequences, with some transposable elements still actively shaping variation. Transcriptome studies reveal an extensive set of genes responding to environmental stress. The expansion of genes coding for heat shock protein 70 and inhibitors of apoptosis is probably central to the oyster's adaptation to sessile life in the highly stressful intertidal zone. Our analyses also show that shell formation in molluscs is more complex than currently understood and involves extensive participation of cells and their exosomes. The oyster genome sequence fills a void in our understanding of the Lophotrochozoa.Oceans cover approximately 71% of the Earth's surface and harbour most of the phylum diversity of the animal kingdom. Understanding marine biodiversity and its evolution remains a major challenge. The Pacific oyster C. gigas (Thunberg, 1793) is a marine bivalve belonging to the phylum Mollusca, which contains the largest number of described marine animal species 1 . Molluscs have vital roles in the functioning of marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems, and have had major effects on humans, primarily as food sources but also as sources of dyes, decorative pearls and shells, vectors of parasites, and biofouling or destructive agents. Many molluscs are important fishery and aquaculture species, as well as models for studying neurobiology, biomineralization, ocean acidification and adaptation to coastal environments under climate change 2,3 . As the most speciose member of the Lophotrochozoa, phylum Mollusca is central to our understanding of the biology and evolution of this superphylum of protostomes.As sessile marine animals living in estuarine and intertidal regions, oysters must cope with harsh and dynamically changing environments. Abiotic factors such as temperature and salinity fluctuate wildly, and toxic metals and desiccation also pose serious challenges. Filter-feeding oysters face tremendous exposure to microbial pathogens. Oysters do have a notable physical line of defence against predation and desiccation in the formation of thick calcified shells, a key evolutionary innovation making molluscs a successful group. However, acidification of the world's oceans by uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide poses a potentially serious threat to this ancient adaptation 4 . Understanding biomineralization and molluscan shell formation is, thus, a major area of interest 5 . Crassostrea gigas is also an interesting model for developmental biology owing to its mosaic development with typical molluscan stages, including trochophore and veliger larvae and metamorphosis.A complete genome sequence of C. gigas would enable a more th...
To survey hepatitis B virus (HBV) integration in liver cancer genomes, we conducted massively parallel sequencing of 81 HBV-positive and 7 HBV-negative hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and adjacent normal tissues. We found that HBV integration is observed more frequently in the tumors (86.4%) than in adjacent liver tissues (30.7%). Copy-number variations (CNVs) were significantly increased at HBV breakpoint locations where chromosomal instability was likely induced. Approximately 40% of HBV breakpoints within the HBV genome were located within a 1,800-bp region where the viral enhancer, X gene and core gene are located. We also identified recurrent HBV integration events (in ≥ 4 HCCs) that were validated by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and Sanger sequencing at the known and putative cancer-related TERT, MLL4 and CCNE1 genes, which showed upregulated gene expression in tumor versus normal tissue. We also report evidence that suggests that the number of HBV integrations is associated with patient survival.
Using next-generation sequencing technology alone, we have successfully generated and assembled a draft sequence of the giant panda genome. The assembled contigs (2.25 gigabases (Gb)) cover approximately 94% of the whole genome, and the remaining gaps (0.05 Gb) seem to contain carnivore-specific repeats and tandem repeats. Comparisons with the dog and human showed that the panda genome has a lower divergence rate. The assessment of panda genes potentially underlying some of its unique traits indicated that its bamboo diet might be more dependent on its gut microbiome than its own genetic composition. We also identified more than 2.7 million heterozygous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the diploid genome. Our data and analyses provide a foundation for promoting mammalian genetic research, and demonstrate the feasibility for using next-generation sequencing technologies for accurate, cost-effective and rapid de novo assembly of large eukaryotic genomes.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) integration is a key genetic event in cervical carcinogenesis. By conducting whole-genome sequencing and high-throughput viral integration detection, we identified 3,667 HPV integration breakpoints in 26 cervical intraepithelial neoplasias, 104 cervical carcinomas and five cell lines. Beyond recalculating frequencies for the previously reported frequent integration sites POU5F1B (9.7%), FHIT (8.7%), KLF12 (7.8%), KLF5 (6.8%), LRP1B (5.8%) and LEPREL1 (4.9%), we discovered new hot spots HMGA2 (7.8%), DLG2 (4.9%) and SEMA3D (4.9%). Protein expression from FHIT and LRP1B was downregulated when HPV integrated in their introns. Protein expression from MYC and HMGA2 was elevated when HPV integrated into flanking regions. Moreover, microhomologous sequence between the human and HPV genomes was significantly enriched near integration breakpoints, indicating that fusion between viral and human DNA may have occurred by microhomology-mediated DNA repair pathways. Our data provide insights into HPV integration-driven cervical carcinogenesis.
Temporal action proposal generation is an challenging and promising task which aims to locate temporal regions in real-world videos where action or event may occur. Current bottom-up proposal generation methods can generate proposals with precise boundary, but cannot efficiently generate adequately reliable confidence scores for retrieving proposals. To address these difficulties, we introduce the Boundary-Matching (BM) mechanism to evaluate confidence scores of densely distributed proposals, which denote a proposal as a matching pair of starting and ending boundaries and combine all densely distributed BM pairs into the BM confidence map. Based on BM mechanism, we propose an effective, efficient and end-to-end proposal generation method, named Boundary-Matching Network (BMN), which generates proposals with precise temporal boundaries as well as reliable confidence scores simultaneously. The two-branches of BMN are jointly trained in an unified framework. We conduct experiments on two challenging datasets: THUMOS-14 and ActivityNet-1.3, where BMN shows significant performance improvement with remarkable efficiency and generalizability. Further, combining with existing action classifier, BMN can achieve stateof-the-art temporal action detection performance.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most deadly cancers worldwide and has no effective treatment, yet the molecular basis of hepatocarcinogenesis remains largely unknown. Here we report findings from a whole-genome sequencing (WGS) study of 88 matched HCC tumor/normal pairs, 81 of which are Hepatitis B virus (HBV) positive, seeking to identify genetically altered genes and pathways implicated in HBV-associated HCC. We find beta-catenin to be the most frequently mutated oncogene (15.9%) and TP53 the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor (35.2%). The Wnt/beta-catenin and JAK/STAT pathways, altered in 62.5% and 45.5% of cases, respectively, are likely to act as two major oncogenic drivers in HCC. This study also identifies several prevalent and potentially actionable mutations, including activating mutations of Janus kinase 1 (JAK1), in 9.1% of patients and provides a path toward therapeutic intervention of the disease.
Significance Liver resident activated hepatic stellate cells (aHSCs), and activated portal fibroblasts (aPFs) are the major source of the fibrous scar in the liver. aPFs have been implicated in liver fibrosis caused by cholestatic liver injury, whereas fibrosis in hepatotoxic liver injury is attributed to aHSCs. However, the contribution of aPFs to cholestatic fibrosis is not well characterized because of difficulties in cell purification and the lack of identified aPF-specific markers. We have developed a novel flow cytometry-based method of aPFs purification from the nonparenchymal cell fraction of collagen-α1(I)-GFP mice and have identified potential aPF-specific markers. The goal of this study is to determine whether aPFs contribute to cholestatic liver fibrosis and identify the mechanism(s) of their activation.
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