KeY is a tool that provides facilities for formal specification and verification of programs within a commercial platform for UML based software development. Using the KeY tool, formal methods and object-oriented development techniques are applied in an integrated manner. Formal specification is performed using the Object Constraint Language (OCL), which is part of the UML standard. KeY provides support for the authoring and formal analysis of OCL constraints. The target language of KeY based development is Java Card DL, a proper subset of Java for smart card applications and embedded systems. KeY uses a dynamic logic for Java Card DL to express proof obligations, and provides a state-of-the-art theorem prover for interactive and automated verification. Apart from its integration into UML based software development, a characteristic feature of KeY is that formal specification and verification can be introduced incrementally.
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Abstract. Static verification of software is becoming ever more effective and efficient. Still, static techniques either have high precision, in which case powerful judgements are hard to achieve automatically, or they use abstractions supporting increased automation, but possibly losing important aspects of the concrete system in the process. Runtime verification has complementary strengths and weaknesses. It combines full precision of the model (including the real deployment environment) with full automation, but cannot judge future and alternative runs. Another drawback of runtime verification can be the computational overhead of monitoring the running system which, although typically not very high, can still be prohibitive in certain settings. In this paper we propose a framework to combine static analysis techniques and runtime verification with the aim of getting the best of both techniques. In particular, we discuss an instantiation of our framework for the deductive theorem prover KeY, and the runtime verification tool Larva. Apart from combining static and dynamic verification, this approach also combines the data centric analysis of KeY with the control centric analysis of Larva. An advantage of the approach is that, through the use of a single specification which can be used by both analysis techniques, expensive parts of the analysis could be moved to the static phase, allowing the runtime monitor to make significant assumptions, dropping parts of expensive checks at runtime. We also discuss specific applications of our approach.
We describe symbol elimination and consequence nding in the rst-order theorem prover Vampire for automatic generation of quantied invariants, possibly with quantier alternations, of loops with arrays. Unlike the previous implementation of symbol elimination in Vampire, our work is not limited to a specic programming language but provides a generic framework by relying on a simple guarded command representation of the input loop. We also improve the loop analysis part in Vampire by generating loop properties more easily handled by the saturation engine of Vampire. Our experiments show that, with our changes, the number of generated invariants is decreased, in some cases, by a factor of 20. We also provide a framework to use our approach to invariant generation in conjunction with pre-and post-conditions of program loops. We use the program specication to nd relevant invariants as well as to verify the partial correctness of the loop. As a case study, we demonstrate how symbol elimination in Vampire can be used as an interface for realistic imperative languages, by integrating our tool in the KeY verication system, thus allowing reasoning about loops in Java programs in a fully automated way, without any user guidance.
Abstract. Static verification techniques can verify properties across all executions of a program, but powerful judgements are hard to achieve automatically. In contrast, runtime verification enjoys full automation, but cannot judge future and alternative runs. In this paper we present a novel approach in which data-centric and control-oriented properties may be stated in a single formalism, amenable to both static and dynamic verification techniques. We develop and formalise a specification notation, ppDATE, extending the control-flow property language used in the runtime verification tool Larva with pre/post-conditions and show how specifications written in this notation can be analysed both using the deductive theorem prover KeY and the runtime verification tool Larva. Verification is performed in two steps: KeY first partially proves the data-oriented part of the specification, simplifying the specification which is then passed on to Larva to check at runtime for the remaining parts of the specification including the control-centric aspects. We apply the approach to Mondex, an electronic purse application.
Smart contracts have been argued to be a means of building trust between parties by providing a self-executing equivalent of legal contracts. And yet, code does not always perform what it was originally intended to do, which resulted in losses of millions of dollars. Static verification of smart contracts is thus a pressing need. This paper presents an approach to verifying smart contracts written in Solidity by automatically translating Solidity into Java and using KeY, a deductive Java verification tool. In particular, we solve the problem of rolling back the effects of aborted transactions by exploiting KeY's native support of JavaCard transactions. We apply our approach to a smart contract which automates a casino system, and discuss how the approach addresses a number of known shortcomings of smart contract development in Solidity.
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