We have designed and synthesized a series of conjugated polymers with fluorene or carbazole and phenylphosphine oxide derivatives as polymer photocatalysts for visible-light-driven hydrogen evolution. The optimized polymer photocatalyst PCzBPO...
Aging is an inevitable part of life for humans, and slowing down the aging process has become a main focus of human endeavor. Here, we applied a systems biology approach to construct protein-protein interaction networks, gene regulatory networks, and epigenetic networks, i.e. genetic and epigenetic networks (GENs), of elderly individuals and young controls. We then compared these GENs to extract aging mechanisms using microarray data in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, microRNA (miRNA) data, and database mining.The core GENs of elderly individuals and young controls were obtained by applying principal network projection to GENs based on Principal Component Analysis. By comparing the core networks, we identified that to overcome the accumulated mutation of genes in the aging process the transcription factor JUN can be activated by stress signals, including the MAPK signaling, T-cell receptor signaling, and neurotrophin signaling pathways through DNA methylation of BTG3, G0S2, and AP2B1 and the regulations of mir-223 let-7d, and mir-130a. We also address the aging mechanisms in old men and women. Furthermore, we proposed that drugs designed to target these DNA methylated genes or miRNAs may delay aging. A multiple drug combination comprising phenylalanine, cholesterol, and palbociclib was finally designed for delaying the aging process.
Porcine sperm motility was assessed via resazurin reduction color change in sperm cells using a novel paper-based assay of our own design. We applied mixtures of resazurin solution and porcine semen onto hydrophilic test circles on our paper-based device and investigated the resulting reduction reaction expressed as red and blue color intensity (RBCI). We quantified this reaction using a blue/pink color ratio from our 8 × 3 = 24 bit RGB color image. To examine enzymatic reactivity in sperm cells, we used two inhibitors: 3-Nitropropanoic acid (3-NPA) and 3-Bromopyruvic acid (3-BP). 3-NPA inhibits the citric acid cycle and electron transfer reaction in mitochondria, but did not strongly reduce sperm motility in our tests. 3-BP decreases reactivity of both mitochondrial electron transfer and glycolytic enzymes in cytosol, which significantly lowers porcine sperm motility. RBCIs of 3-NPA- and 3-BP-treated samples were significantly lower compared to our untreated control (p < 0.025). Based on these results, we feel that resazurin can be used to estimate the amount of reductants with and without inhibitor treatment. For continued research assessing the molecular mechanisms of resazurin reduction in porcine sperm, a combination assay using two or more redox indicators (e.g., resazurin and Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide (MTT)) embedded into our paper-based device could further our understanding of sperm cell bioenergetics.
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