BackgroundPollen tube elongation in the pistil is a key step for pollination success in plants, and auxins play an important role in this process. However, the function of auxins in pollen tube elongation in the pistil of rice under heat stress has seldom been previously reported.ResultsTwo rice genotypes differing in heat tolerance were subjected to heat stress of 40 °C for 2 h after flowering. A sharp decrease in spikelet fertility was found in the Nipponbare (NPB) and its mutant High temperature susceptible (HTS) under heat stress, but the stress-induced spikelet sterility was reversed by 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), especially the HTS. Under heat stress, the pollen tubes of NPB were visible in ovule, while those of HTS were invisible. However, we found the pollen tubes in ovule when sprayed with NAA. During this process, a significant increase in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels was found in the pistil of heat-stressed NPB, while in heat-stressed HTS they were obviously decreased. Additionally, the peroxidase (POD) activity in pistil of NPB was significantly decreased by heat stress, whereas there was no difference between the heat-stressed and non-heat-stressed pistils of HTS.ConclusionIt was concluded that the enhancement of heat tolerance in plants by NAA was achieved through the increase of the levels of auxins, which prevented the inhibition of pollen tube elongation in pistil, and the crosstalk between auxins and ROS, which might be involved in this process. In addition, POD might be a negative mediator in pollen tube elongation under heat stress due to its ability to scavenge ROS and degrade auxin.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1186/s12284-018-0206-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Heat stress impairs both pollen germination and pollen tube elongation, resulting in pollination failure caused by energy imbalance. Invertase plays a critical role in the maintenance of energy homoeostasis; however, few studies investigated this during heat stress. Two rice cultivars with different heat tolerance, namely, TLY83 (heat tolerant) and LLY722 (heat susceptible), were subjected to heat stress. At anthesis, heat
Heat stress at the pollen mother cell (PMC) meiotic stage leads to pollen sterility in rice, in which the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and sugar homeostasis are always adversely affected. This damage is reversed by abscisic acid (ABA), but the mechanisms underlying the interactions among the ABA, sugar metabolism, ROS and heat shock proteins in rice spikelets under heat stress are unclear. Two rice genotypes, Zhefu802 (a recurrent parent) and fgl (its near-isogenic line) were subjected to heat stress of 40°C after pre-foliage sprayed with ABA and its biosynthetic inhibitor fluridone at the meiotic stage of PMC. The results revealed that exogenous application of ABA reduced pollen sterility caused by heat stress. This was achieved through various means, including: increased levels of soluble sugars, starch and non-structural carbohydrates, markedly higher relative expression levels of heat shock proteins (HSP24.1 and HSP71.1) and genes related to sugar metabolism and transport, such as sucrose transporters (SUT) genes, sucrose synthase (SUS) genes and invertase (INV) genes as well as increased antioxidant activities and increased content of adenosine triphosphate and endogenous ABA in spikelets. In short, exogenous application of ABA prior to heat stress enhanced sucrose transport and accelerated sucrose metabolism to maintain the carbon balance and energy homeostasis, thus ABA contributed to heat tolerance in rice.
BackgroundAbscisic acid (ABA) and sucrose act as molecular signals in response to abiotic stress. However, how their synergy regulates the source-sink relationship has rarely been studied. This study aimed to reveal the mechanism underlying the synergy between ABA and sucrose on assimilates allocation to improve grain yield and quality of rice. The early indica rice cultivar Zhefu802 was selected and planted in an artificial climate chamber at 32/24 °C (day/night) under natural sunlight conditions. Sucrose and ABA were exogenously sprayed (either alone or in combination) onto rice plants at flowering and 10 days after flowering.ResultsABA plus sucrose significantly improved both the grain yield and quality of rice, which was mainly a result of the higher proportion of dry matter accumulation and non-structural carbohydrates in panicles. These results were mainly ascribed to the large improvement in sucrose transport in the sheath-stems in response to the ABA plus sucrose treatment. In this process, ABA plus sucrose significantly enhanced the contents of starch, gibberellic acids, and zeatin ribosides as well as the activities and gene expression of enzymes involved in starch synthesis in grains. Additionally, remarkable increases in trehalose content and expression levels of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase1, trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase7, and sucrose non-fermenting related protein kinase 1A were also found in grains treated with ABA plus sucrose.ConclusionThe synergy between ABA and sucrose increased grain yield and quality by improving the source-sink relationship through sucrose and trehalose metabolism in grains.
Abscisic acid (ABA) acts as a signaling hormone in plants against abiotic stress, but its function in energy homeostasis under heat stress is unclear.
Two rice genotypes, Nipponbare (wild-type, WT) with flat leaves and its mutant high temperature susceptibility (hts) plant with semi-rolled leaves, were subjected to heat stress. We found significantly higher tissue temperature, respiration rate, and ABA and H2O2 contents in leaves as well as a lower transpiration rate and stomatal conductance in hts than WT plants. Additionally, increased expression of HSP71.1 and HSP24.1 as well as greater increases in carbohydrate content, ATP, NAD (H), and dry matter weight, were detected in WT than hts plants under heat stress. More importantly, exogenous ABA significantly decreased heat tolerance of hts plants, but clearly enhanced heat resistance of WT plants. The increases in carbohydrates, ATP, NAD (H), and heat shock proteins in WT plants were enhanced by ABA under heat stress, whereas these increases were reduced in hts plants.
It was concluded that ABA is a negative regulator of heat tolerance in hts plants with semi-rolled leaves by modulating energy homeostasis.
Background: Glutathione (GSH) is important for plants to resist abiotic stress, and a large amount of energy is required in the process. However, it is not clear how the energy status affects the accumulation of GSH in plants under cold stress. Results: Two rice pure lines, Zhongzao39 (ZZ39) and its recombinant inbred line 82 (RIL82) were subjected to cold stress for 48 h. Under cold stress, RIL82 suffered more damages than ZZ39 plants, in which higher increases in APX activity and GSH content were showed in the latter than the former compared with their respective controls. This indicated that GSH was mainly responsible for the different cold tolerance between these two rice plants. Interestingly, under cold stress, greater increases in contents of carbohydrate, NAD(H), NADP(H) and ATP as well as the expression levels of GSH1 and GSH2 were showed in RIL82 than ZZ39 plants. In contrast, ATPase content in RIL82 plants was adversely inhibited by cold stress while it increased significantly in ZZ39 plants. This indicated that cold stress reduced the accumulation of GSH in RIL82 plants mainly due to the inhibition on ATP hydrolysis rather than energy deficit. Conclusion: We inferred that the energy status determined by ATP hydrolysis involved in regulating the cold tolerance of plants by controlling GSH synthesis.
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