The molecular mechanisms of plant recognition, colonization, and nutrient exchange between diazotrophic endophytes and plants are scarcely known. Herbaspirillum seropedicae is an endophytic bacterium capable of colonizing intercellular spaces of grasses such as rice and sugar cane. The genome of H. seropedicae strain SmR1 was sequenced and annotated by The Paraná State Genome Programme—GENOPAR. The genome is composed of a circular chromosome of 5,513,887 bp and contains a total of 4,804 genes. The genome sequence revealed that H. seropedicae is a highly versatile microorganism with capacity to metabolize a wide range of carbon and nitrogen sources and with possession of four distinct terminal oxidases. The genome contains a multitude of protein secretion systems, including type I, type II, type III, type V, and type VI secretion systems, and type IV pili, suggesting a high potential to interact with host plants. H. seropedicae is able to synthesize indole acetic acid as reflected by the four IAA biosynthetic pathways present. A gene coding for ACC deaminase, which may be involved in modulating the associated plant ethylene-signaling pathway, is also present. Genes for hemagglutinins/hemolysins/adhesins were found and may play a role in plant cell surface adhesion. These features may endow H. seropedicae with the ability to establish an endophytic life-style in a large number of plant species.
The genus Erythrinus belongs to the family Erythrinidae, a neotropical fish group. This genus contains only two described species, Erythrinus erythrinus being the most widely distributed in South America. Six samples of this species from five distinct Brazilian localities and one from Argentina were studied cytogenetically. Four groups were identified on the basis of their chromosomal features. Group A comprises three samples, all with 2n ¼ 54 chromosomes, a very similar karyotypic structure, and the absence of chromosome differentiation between males and females. One sample bears up to four supernumerary microchromosomes, which look like 'double minute chromosomes' in appearance. Groups B-D comprise the three remaining samples, all sharing an X 1 X 1 X 2 X 2 /X 1 X 2 Y sex chromosome system. Group B shows 2n ¼ 54/53 chromosomes in females and males, respectively, and also shows up to three supernumerary microchromosomes. Groups C and D show 2n ¼ 52/51 chromosomes in females and males, respectively, but differ in the number of metacentric, subtelocentric, and acrocentric chromosomes. In these three groups (B-D), the Y is a metacentric chromosome clearly identified as the largest in the complement. The present results offer clear evidence that local samples of E. erythrinus retain exclusive and fixed chromosomal features, indicating that this species may represent a species complex.
Cytogenetic analyses were performed on three Gymnotus species, Gymnotus paraguensis, Gymnotus sylvius and Gymnotus pantanal, collected in sympatry in the region of Guaı´ra, ParanaŚ tate (Brazil). Gymnotus paraguensis presented 54 chromosomes (52m-sm þ 2st) in both sexes, G. sylvius presented 40 chromosomes (36m-sm þ 4a) in both sexes and G. pantanal presented 40 chromosomes (14m-sm þ 26a) in females and 39 (15m-sm þ 24a) in males, with an X 1 X 1 X 2 X 2 / X 1 X 2 Y multiple sex chromosome system. All three species had single nucleolar organizing regions and heterochromatin in the centromeric region of most chromosomes. Gymnotus pantanal, previously collected only in the Lower Parana´and Paraguay River basins, was confirmed for the first time in the Upper Parana´River basin. This species constitutes one of several examples of species that have colonized the region after flooding of the great Sete Quedas waterfalls by the construction of the Itaipu hydroelectric dam. The probable absence or infertility of hybrids is indicated by the high level of chromosome differentiation between these species.
Physical mapping of 5S rDNA in 2 species of knifefishes, Gymnotuspantanal and G. paraguensis (Gymnotiformes), was performed using fluorescence in situ hybridization with a 5S rDNA probe. The 5S rDNA PCR product from the genomes of both species was also sequenced and aligned to determine non-transcribed spacer sequences (NTS). Both species under study had different patterns of 5S rDNA gene cluster distribution. While in the karyotype of G. pantanal two 5S rDNA-bearing pairs were observed, the karyotype of G. paraguensis possessed as many as 19 such pairs. Such multiplication of 5S rDNA gene clusters might be caused by the involvement of transposable elements because the NTS of G. paraguensis was 400 bp long with high identity (90%) with a mobile transposable element called Tc1-like transposon, described from the cyprinid fish Labeo rohita.
Harttia is a genus in the subfamily Loricariinae that accommodates fishes popularly known as armored catfishes. They show extensive karyotypic diversity regarding interspecific numerical/structural variation of the karyotypes, with the presence of the XX/XY1Y2 multiple sex chromosome system, as found in H. carvalhoi. In this context, this study aimed to characterize Harttia punctata chromosomally, for the first time, and to infer the rearrangements that originated the X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y multiple sex chromosome system present in this species. The data obtained in this study, with classical (Giemsa, C-banding and AgNORs) and molecular methodologies (fluorescence in situ hybridization) and chromosome microdissection, indicated that a translocation between distinct acrocentric chromosomes bearing rRNA genes, accompanied by deletions in both chromosomes, might have originated the neo-Y chromosome in this species. The data also suggest that the multiple sex chromosome systems present in H. carvalhoi and H. punctata had an independent origin, evidencing the recurrence of chromosome alterations in species from this genus.
Karyotype, sex chromosome system and cytogenetics characteristics of an unidentified species of the genus Apareiodon originating from Piquiri River (Paraná State, Brazil) were investigated using differential staining techniques (C-banding and Ag-staining) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S and 18S rDNA probes. The diploid chromosome number was 2n = 54 with 25 pairs of meta- (m) to submetacentric (sm) and 2 pairs of subtelocentric (st) chromosomes. The major ribosomal rDNA sites as revealed by Ag-staining and FISH with 18S rDNA probe were found in distal region of longer arm of st chromosome pair 26, while minor 5S sites were observed in the interstitial sites on chromosome pairs 2 (smaller cluster) and 7 (larger one). The C-positive heterochromatin had pericentromeric and telomeric distribution. The heteromorphic sex chromosome system consisted of male ZZ (pair 21) and female middle-sized m/st Z/W chromosomes. The pericentric inversion of heterochromatinized short arm of ancestral Z followed by multiplication of heterochromatin segments is hypothesized for origin of W chromosome. The observed karyotype and chromosomal markers corresponded to those found in other species of the genus.
One of the biggest challenges in chromosome biology is to understand the occurrence and complex genetics of the extra, non-essential karyotype elements, commonly known as supernumerary or B chromosomes (Bs). The non-Mendelian inheritance and non-pairing abilities of B chromosomes make them an interesting model for genomics studies, thus bringing to bear different questions about their genetic composition, evolutionary survival, maintenance and functional role inside the cell. This study uncovers these phenomena in multiple species that we considered as representative organisms of both vertebrate and invertebrate models for B chromosome analysis.
We sequenced the genomes of three animal species including two fishes Astyanax mexicanus and Astyanax correntinus, and a grasshopper Abracris flavolineata, each with and without Bs, and identified their B-localized genes and repeat contents. We detected unique sequences occurring exclusively on Bs and discovered various evolutionary patterns of genomic rearrangements associated to Bs. In situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reactions further validated our genomic approach confirming detection of sequences on Bs. The functional annotation of B sequences showed that the B chromosome comprises regions of gene fragments, novel genes, and intact genes, which encode a diverse set of functions related to important biological processes such as metabolism, morphogenesis, reproduction, transposition, recombination, cell cycle and chromosomes functions which might be important for their evolutionary success.
This study reveals the genomic structure, composition and function of Bs, which provide new insights for theories of B chromosome evolution. The selfish behavior of Bs seems to be favored by gained genes/sequences.
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