In the present study, we evaluated the influence of agroforestry systems and traditional agriculture on the physical attributes and biologicals of soil, using as reference a native forest area in Paraty, RJ. Levels of total soil organic carbon, as well as oxidizable fractions and aggregate stability, were analyzed, in addition to the activity and carbon and nitrogen content in the soil microbial biomass, in the 0-5 cm layer, in two distinct seasons (dry and rainy seasons). The agroforestry systems and traditional agriculture maintain high levels of total organic carbon and its storage in more stable fractions. These systems provide the same conditions as those of the forest area for the aggregation of the soil. The microbial biomass was more responsive to variations in management and seasonality. The deployment of agroforestry systems contributes to the formation of a more diversified agricultural matrix, promoting improvements in the soil quality and connection with the remaining adjacent forest.
In the Rio de Janeiro State, the Atlantic Forest is restricted to small fragments, responsible for the maintenance of environmental services. These fragments occur on steep slopes dominated by concave and convex pedoforms, capable of changing the local microclimate conditions. To preserve these communities, it is necessary to determine the level of influence of these pedoforms on forests structure and species distribution. Thus, we performed a phytosociological study and installed a set of four sensors to determine the monthly mean of air temperature and relative humidity in concave and concave pedoforms. The forest structure and the microclimate averages are compared by the Levene's T-test. We observed differences between microclimatic average, importance value indexes (IVIs) and total height, indicating that microclime variations can influence the structure and composition of the tree community. However, these structure differences are punctual and insufficient to determine specific communities.
The identification of the labile and recalcitrant forms of soil organic matter (SOM) allows to rapidly define, or even predict if the management used favors increments or losses of carbon in the soil. Thus, the objective of this work was to assess the effects of different grazing intensities and soybean crops on the oxidizable and granulometric fractions of the SOM in a crop-livestock integration combined with no-tillage system (CLI-NTS), established in 2009 in the Goiás Federal University. The treatments consisted of three different pasture heights (0.25 m P25; 0.35 m P35; 0.45 m P45), and areas without grazing (AWG), and a native vegetation area of the Cerrado biome (NCA), adjacent to the experimental area, was evaluated as references and compared with the cultivated areas. Soil samples (Oxisol -USDA; typic distroferric Red Latosol -SiBCS) were collected in the layers 0.00-0.05; 0.05-0.10 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m of each area, and arranged in a completely randomized experimental design with six replications. The soil total carbon was quantified (TC) by dry combustion. The SOM granulometry and oxidizable SOM were fractionated into particulate carbon (OCp), carbon bond with minerals (OCm) and four oxidizable fractions with increasing degrees of recalcitrance (F1
Water erosion acts as the main form of soil degradation, promoting the release of particles that associated with factors such as climate, relief, soil vegetation and use and occupation favor this process. This study aimed to evaluate whether gullies are more likely to be present in a specific type of landform and how physical and chemical soil characteristics vary between the internal and external environments of concave and convex gullies. The study was performed in the Cachimbal River sub-basin, Pinheiral (RJ). Gullies were mapped and the quantitative and qualitative evaluations (occurrence in concave or convex surface). For each type of landform, one gully was selected. Soil samples (disturbed and undisturbed) were collected from the internal and external surfaces of each gully at a depth of 0-10 cm and soil chemical and physical characteristics were determined. More gullies were present in convex landforms and differences in soil characteristics were observed between the internal and external gully surfaces, but not between different landforms. Ca+2, S value, H+Al, T value, Mg+2, TOC and K+ were associated with the external surface, and P, Al+3, aluminum saturation, V%, and pH with the internal surface. Natural and total clay content, and soil and particle density were the physical characteristics associated with the external surface, and total and fine sand content, porosity, degree of flocculation, and silt content with the internal surface.
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