We describe a parallel fast multipole method (FMM) for highly nonuniform distributions of particles. We employ both distributed memory parallelism (via MPI) and shared memory parallelism (via OpenMP and GPU acceleration) to rapidly evaluate two-body nonoscillatory potentials in three dimensions on heterogeneous high performance computing architectures. We have performed scalability tests with up to 30 billion particles on 196,608 cores on the AMD/ CRAY-based Jaguar system at ORNL. On a GPU-enabled system (NSF's Keeneland at Georgia Tech/ORNL), we observed 30× speedup over a single core CPU and 7× speedup over a multicore CPU implementation. By combining GPUs with MPI, we achieve less than 10 ns/particle and six digits of accuracy for a run with 48 million nonuniformly distributed particles on 192 GPUs.
The ChromaGen lens system is designed to enhance colour perception in colour vision deficiency (CVD). To investigate its efficacy, 14 CVD subjects were prescribed ChromaGen contact lenses. Colour vision tests (Ishihara, Farnsworth Munsell D-15, Farnsworth Lantern) were administered at baseline, lens dispensing, and after a 2-week lens-wearing trial during which subjective responses were recorded daily using visual analogue scales. ChromaGen lenses significantly reduced ishihara error rates (p < 0.001; ANOVA), particularly for deutan subjects. There was also a significant reduction in errors (p < 0.005) on the D-15 test. Conversely, lens wear had no significant effect on Farnsworth Lantern test performance. Subjectively, subjects reported enhanced colour perception, but poor vision in dim light. Judgement of distance and motion were only slightly affected. We conclude that ChromaGen lenses may enhance subjective colour experience and assist in certain colour-related tasks, but are not indicated as an aid for CVD in occupations with colour vision-related restrictions.
Cellulosic aerogel from water hyacinth (WH) was synthesized to address the dual environmental issues of water hyacinth pollution and the production of a green material. Raw WH was treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) with microwave assistance and in combination with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). The results from X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that lignin and hemicellulose were markedly decreased after treatment, reducing from 24.02% hemicellulose and 5.67% lignin in raw WH to 8.32 and 1.92%, respectively. Cellulose aerogel from the pretreated WH had a high porosity of 98.8% with a density of 0.0162 g•cm −3 and a low thermal conductivity of 0.030 W•m −1 •K −1 . After modification with methyl trimethoxysilane (MTMS) to produce a highly hydrophobic material, WH aerogel exhibited high stability for oil absorption at a capacity of 43.3, 43.15, 40.40, and 41.88 (g•g −1 ) with diesel oil (DO), motor oil (MO), and their mixture with water (DO + W and MO + W), respectively. The adsorption remained stable after 10 cycles.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.