Reviews literature highlighting a number of problems associated with
entrepreneurship education and training programmes. The major problem
relates to balance: too much of an emphasis on knowledge and not enough
on competence; too much emphasis on information transfer learning
methods and not enough on individual small group learning methods such
as project teams, peer exchange, individual counselling and workshops.
There is very little evaluation of the effectiveness of such programmes.
There is a lack of evidence on how learning strategies influence the
development of entrepreneurial competences and how these competences
transfer into new project/venture formation. There is also a lack of
comparative research to identify commonalities, and differences in terms
of design and structure.
The problem and the solution. This article reviews the literature on strategic human resource development. It proposes a model of strategic Human Resource Development (HRD) which is multi-level and focuses on the interactions between context, HRD processes, stakeholder satisfaction, and characteristics of the HRD profession. The article discusses the implications of this model for both research and practice.
Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of talent development, define its scope and identify the issues involved in formulating talent development strategies in organisations. Design/methodology/approach-The paper reviews the relatively scant and fragmented literature on talent development processes. Findings-The literature review revealed that talent development is usually discussed as part of a wider talent management process. The literature highlights issues concerning who is the talent to be developed, what competencies should be developed, who drives development, what is the appropriate pace of development and what is the architecture to support the development. Research limitations/implications-The paper is solely theoretical in nature; however, it does identify gaps for further research. Practice implications-The paper raises a number of important questions that should be considered by organisations when they engage in talent development. Originality/value-The paper contributes to a perceived gap in the literature and highlights the issues that come within the terrain of talent development.
Evidence suggests increased usage of competency models by organisations to drive workplace learning initiatives in the USA and more recently in the UK. The use of competency frameworks as the focus of workplace learning serves the dual purpose of facilitating the identification of learning needs and ensuring that learning provision addresses business needs (Reid and Barrington, 1994;Thomson and Mabey, 1994). Furthermore, the drive for mobility, flexibility and employability has also resulted in employees expecting that their enhanced competencies be recognised through certification processes. The increased usage of competencies is also reflected in the burgeoning academic literature on the topic.The most recent Cranfield University of Limerick survey (1999) reveals a significant increase in the usage of competency frameworks in Europe. Empirical evidence exists to suggest that the competency movement has taken hold in a number of countries, among them Australia (Cornford and Athanasou, 1995), the USA (Boyatzis and Kolb, 1995), the UK (Newton and Wilkenson, 1995), the Scandinavian countries (Mabon, 1995) and Israel (Reichel, 1996). This trend can be attributed to the proactive role played by national governments in recognising the benefits that can accrue through the creation and adoption of recognisable competency standards.
Human Resource Development (HRD) in small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) is a significant area of scholarship. However, the cumulativeness of research on HRD in SMEs remains relatively low when compared to HRD generally. This paper reports a systematic literature review (SLR) to synthesise research in this area. A disciplined screening process resulted in a final sample of 117 papers published in 31 journals from 1995 to 2014. The synthesis of these empirical and theoretical studies revealed that: (a) the literature utilises a narrow range of theoretical and conceptual perspectives; (b) HRD is being investigated across a variety of SME contexts, themes and units of analysis; (c) researchers define HRD in multiple ways and use a diverse set of measures of HRD activity; (d) there is significant potential for future research across the SME and HRD disciplines, SME settings and beyond existing theoretical perspectives. We offer suggestions for further advancing the development of this area of research in terms of theory, content and methodology.
Human resource development (HRD) is increasingly expected to play a facilitative role in corporate social responsibility (CSR), sustainability, and ethics in organizations. However, there is also significant skepticism concerning HRD’s ability to make a contribution to these areas. It is criticized for moving away from its mission to advocate humanistic values in organizations to totally embracing a short-term business agenda. This article argues that societal HRD (SHRD) can make an important and long-lasting contribution to CSR, sustainability, and ethics through its capacity to question a continual focus by organizations on efficiency and performance. However, it must also be conscious of its business role. Both objectives must be pursued side-by-side. The article outlines a framework of activities that HRD may use to reorient the agenda, hold organizations accountable, provide leadership on CSR, sustainability, and ethics, and at the same time ensure that the organization is profitable and successful. The article summarizes the six articles that are included in this issue.
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