Human-modified landscapes (HMLs) are composed by small, isolated and defaunated forest fragments, which are surrounded by agricultural and urban areas. Information on species that thrives in these HMLs is essential to direct conservation strategies in local and regional scales. Since HMLs are dominant in the Atlantic Forest, we aimed to assess the mammalian diversity in a HML in southeastern Brazil and to propose conservation strategies. We collected data of terrestrial (small-, medium- and large-sized) and volant mammals in three small forest fragments (10, 14 and 26 ha) and adjacent areas, between 2003 and 2016, using complementary methods: active search, camera trapping, live-traps, mist nets and occasional records (i.e., roadkills). In addition, we used secondary data to complement our species list. We recorded 35 native mammal species (6 small-sized, 16 medium- and large-sized, and 13 bats) and seven exotic species in the HML. The recorded mammal assemblage (non-volant and volant), although mainly composed of common and generalist species, includes three medium- and large-sized species nationally threatened (Leopardus guttulus, Puma concolor and Puma yagouaroundi) and two data deficient species (Galictis cuja and Histiotus velatus), highlighting the importance of this HML for the maintenance and conservation of mammal populations. Despite highly impacted by anthropogenic disturbances, the study area harbors a significant richness of medium- and large-sized mammals, being an important biodiversity refuge in the region. However, this biodiversity is threatened by the low quality of the habitats, roadkills and abundant populations of domestic cats and dogs. Therefore, we stress the need of conservation strategies focusing on the medium- and large-sized mammals as an umbrella group, which could benefit all biodiversity in the landscape. We recommend actions that promotes biological restoration, aiming to increase structural composition and connectivity of the forest fragments, reducing roadkills and controlling the domestic cats and dogs' populations, in order to maintain and improve the diversity of mammals in long-term.
Motivation SIA‐BRA is a data set that compiles stable carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotope ratios of terrestrial and aquatic animals sampled in Brazilian biomes and coastal marine areas. Stable isotope ratios are helpful in animal ecology for several reasons; for instance, they can be used to investigate trophic niches, energy sources (diet tracing) and to track migration patterns. The Neotropics are considered one of the most undersampled regions of the world. Given that Brazil is a continental country where most of the dietary ecology of animal species is under‐assessed, we believe that the SIA‐BRA can provide important complementary information to address this gap in the literature. Additionally, the SIA‐BRA data set allows future investigations to address many questions concerning diet tracing, habitat use, food webs, foraging ecology, physiological aspects and effects of phylogeny on dietary ecology. Main type of variable investigated Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios for terrestrial and aquatic animals. Spatial location and grain The SIA‐BRA included animal tissues sampled in 964 sites in the main Brazilian biomes and coastal marine areas. Time period The data represent information published and/or sampled from 1984 to 2021. Major taxa studied and measurement level The SIA‐BRA contains isotopic data of c. 21,804 non‐captive wildlife specimens, excluding livestock production or laboratory experiments. They were 13,881 vertebrates and 7,923 invertebrates. They were divided into the following habitats: terrestrial (30% of the total), freshwater (27%), oceanic (40%) and estuarine (4%). There were 11 phyla, with a clear dominance of Chordata (64%) and Arthropoda (29%), 36 classes, 154 orders, 473 families, 894 genera and 1,157 species. Software format Data are supplied as a comma‐delimited text file (.csv).
Between July 2008 and May 2010, we conducted a trophic study on 12 Brazilian wild carnivore species through their faecal analysis in a silvicultural landscape at Angatuba municipality, southern São Paulo state. Predator faeces was identified by morphology, predator hair, and surrounding tracks; prey remnants within faeces were used for morphological identification of the prey. Among the recovered ectoparasites, there were 89 specimens of six tick species in 21 (4.0%) out of 523 analysed samples. Ticks were identified to species level, based on external morphological characters, as following: adults of Amblyomma ovale and Amblyomma sculptum; nymphs of Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma calcaratum, Amblyomma dubitatum, A. ovale, and Ixodes schulzei; and larvae of Amblyomma sp. and Ixodes sp. Generally, the recovered immature ticks were associated with consumed prey (small birds or small mammals), whereas adults were associated with the predator itself, ingested during its self-grooming. Our data show that faeces is an additional information source on ticks in Brazil and which may provide information on ectoparasite-predator-prey interactions.
Sampling wild animal populations using non-invasive techniques is advised when dealing with threatened species. Hair samples provide ecological information like species and individual identification. However, hair trapping is scarcely used in otters, due to their aquatic habits. Most studies are with captive individuals, so there is the need to test non-invasive hair trapping methods in otters in the wild. The aim of this study was to develop a simple and cost-effective method to collect hair from otter species in a non-invasive way. The study was carried out in the Paranapanema River, São Paulo State, Brazil, with the Neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis Olfers, 1818), a protected species. Hair traps (wooden sticks and tree roots with adhesive tape or wax bands) were set during six nights on river banks, otter trails and scent-marking sites. Traps were baited with otter fresh spraints from other river locations. From the 23 traps, 10 (43.7%) were successful in collecting otter hairs, mostly guard-hair. The sticks were much more efficient than the roots at capturing otter hair (70.6.% vs. 0%) as well as adhesive tape when compared to wax (71.4% vs. 0%). Method simplicity and efficiency suggest that it can be a cost-effective way for collecting otter hairs without the need for capturing individuals. This method can be used for: assessment of local otter distribution; collecting otter hair samples for sex and individual identification (by molecular analysis), trophic ecology (by isotopic analyses), ecotoxicology (by contamination analysis) or behaviour ecology (by hormonal and stress levels analysis). More trapping campaigns should be implemented to further test the method's efficiency.
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