Perceptions of higher levels of cognitive social capital (trust of neighbours) are associated with lower risks of developing MD during 2-3 year follow-up. However, after excluding participants with MD at the baseline, the association between trust and MD became non-significant. Structural dimensions were not associated with MD.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has severely impacted the lives of children and adolescents. School closure, one of the critical changes during the first COVID-19 wave, caused decreases in social contacts and increases in family time for children and adolescents. This can have both positive and negative influences on suicide, which is one of the robust mental health outcomes. However, the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on children and adolescents in terms of suicide is unknown.
This study investigates the acute effect of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic on suicide among children and adolescents during school closure in Japan.
Total number of suicides per month among children and adolescents under 20 years old between January 2018 and May 2020.
Poisson regression was used to examine whether suicide increased or decreased during school closure, which spanned from March to May 2020, compared with the same period in 2018 and 2019. Robustness check was conducted using all data from January 2018 to May 2020. Negative binomial regression, a model with overdispersion, was also performed.
We found no significant change in suicide rates during the school closure (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81 to 1.64). We found the main effect of month, that is, suicides significantly increased suicides in May (IRR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.78) compared to March, but the interaction terms of month and school closure were not significant (p > 0.1).
As preliminary findings, this study suggests that the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic has not significantly affected suicide rates among children and adolescents during the school closure in Japan.
BackgroundThe Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines are the most widely used guidelines on gestational weight gain; however, accumulation of evidence that body composition in Asians differs from other races has brought concern regarding whether their direct application is appropriate. We aimed to study to what extent optimal gestational weight gain among women in Japan differs by pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and to compare estimated optimal gestational weight gain to current Japanese and Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations.MethodsWe retrospectively studied 104,070 singleton pregnancies among nulliparous women in 2005–2011 using the Japanese national perinatal network database. In five pre-pregnancy BMI sub-groups (17.0–18.4, 18.5–19.9, 20–22.9, 23–24.9, and 25–27.4 kg/m2), we estimated the association of the rate of gestational weight gain with pregnancy outcomes (fetal growth, preterm delivery, and delivery complications) using multivariate regression.ResultsWeight gain rate associated with the lowest risk of adverse outcomes decreased with increasing BMI (12.2 kg, 10.9 kg, 9.9 kg, 7.7 kg, and 4.3 kg/40 weeks) for the five BMI categories as described above, respectively. Current Japanese guidelines were lower than optimal gains, with the lowest risk of adverse outcomes for women with BMI below 18.5 kg/m2, and current IOM recommendations were higher than optimal gains for women with BMI over 23 kg/m2.ConclusionOptimal weight gain during pregnancy varies largely by pre-pregnancy BMI, and defining those with BMI over 23 kg/m2 as overweight, as proposed by the World Health Organization, may be useful when applying current IOM recommendations to Japanese guidelines.
The electronic structures are calculated for several crystalline approximants of quasicrystals, AlCuLi and AlFe. The densities of states of these systems, and also of AIMn, suggest universality of the pseudogap at the Fermi energy in quasicrystals. The pseudogap satisfies a Hume-Rothery-type relation. The origin of the pseudogap is attributed to strong electron scattering by the lattice and the pseudogap causes an enhancement of cohesive energies. The characteristics of the states in the pseudogap and the electric resistivity are also discussed.PACS numbers: 65.40.Em, Since the discovery of quasicrystals, 1,2 theoretical investigations have focused mainly on their structures and phasons. Recently, the electronic properties have received much attention. The main interest is twofold: One is electronic transport or localization 3 " 5 and the other is the electronic mechanism of cohesion. 6 " 9 The diffraction pattern in quasicrystals is a sum of densely distributed 8 functions with crystallographically disallowed orientational symmetry. The anomalous diffraction pattern suggests that electrons in quasicrystals may be always and everywhere scattered strongly and the electron wave functions oscillate at all scales. This is the case in the one-dimensional Fibonacci lattice and the energy spectrum has gaps at almost every energy value. 3 In the two-dimensional case, the situation is not essentially changed. The energy spectrum of the twodimensional Penrose lattice is not smooth and most of the wave functions are critical, i.e., neither extended nor exponentially localized, and presumably with power-law decay. 4 Recently, high quality samples of stable quasicrystals with only small amounts of structural disorder and phasonlike defects were prepared, and their electric resistivity has been observed to be anomalously large. The electric resistivity in icosahedral AlCuLi is 6 times larger than in crystals, whereas the coefficient of the linear-temperature-dependent term of the specific heat is almost the same in two phases. 10 The electric resistivity of stable icosahedral AlCuRu has been observed to increase drastically, up to 2500 p. Cl cm or more at 4.2 K. 11 Therefore, we presume that electronic states in threedimensional quasicrystals are also critical. The anomalous diffraction pattern also suggests a strong electronlattice interaction and one may expect it has a crucial role for stability, such as in the Hume-Rothery or Peierls mechanism.In this paper, we present the electronic structures of crystalline approximants of realistic quasicrystals, AlCu-Li and AlFe, and discuss an electronic mechanism of cohesion and stability in realistic quasicrystals. Discussions are concerned with R-AlCuLi and Alj 4 Fe3, together with a-AlMn. 8 These are the crystalline approximants of typical quasicrystals: the stable icosahedral quasicrystal /-AlCuLi, the metastable icosahedral quasicrystal /-AlMnSi, and the metastable decagonal quasicrystal rf-AlFe. The crystalline phase of AlCuLi, i.e., /^-AlCuLi, reveals the typical structure of...
The widely reported associations between schooling and health outcomes/behaviours may not reflect causal relationships in every instance. Although low statistical power may explain some of the null associations, our twin fixed-effect analyses suggest that at least some cases of the education/health relationship reflect confounding by unobserved third variables.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.